Skip to main content

Full text of "The Havana post"

See other formats







The Road That Runs Into Vuelta Abajo 
Where World's Best Tobacco 
Is Grown. 

In a single short journey the tour- 
ist who travels from Havana into 
Pinar del Rio Province over the West- 
ern Railway of Havana, Ltd., sees 
Cuba's three principal industries close 
at band; for sugar plantations, to- 
bacco estates and pineapple fields are 
part (but only part) of the very in. 
teresting scenery through which he 
is conveyed. 

Sugar Plantations. 

Cristina Station, the railway com- 
pany's city terminal from which he 
sets out (at 7 a. m.) is twenty-five 
miles behind him, when, looking from 
the car window as he approaches 
the station of Gabriel, he may see on 
the right hand the tall factory chim- 
neys of the sugar plantation Fajardo. 
Thig is the heart of what was for. 
merly a most prosperous sugar dis- 
trict. Fajardo is sole survivor 
among a very large number of mills, 
some of which were abandoned when 
the Ten Years' War (1868-78), aboli- 
tion of slavery and general hard times 
resulting therefrom, made the sugar 
business as then conducted, unprofit- 
able; others were destroyed, like Ele- 
jalde, the ruins of which are close 
by Guira, the next station, as late as 
1896, when Weyler ordered demolished 
what little the Cuban insurgents had 
left of cane fields, banana groves and 
coffee estates, which had constituted 
this "The Garden Spot" of all the 
island. It is interesting to observe 
how the sugar business of this end 
of the island is now recovering, even 
outstripping its previous records. At 
Alquizar the old mill Fortuna has re- 
sumed grinding; at Artemisa El Pilar 
(not destroyed despite vicissitudes) is 
very busy every season. Elsewhere 
new mills are in project and the re- 
habilitation of old ones is planned. 
Partido Tobacco. 

At Guira thle traveler along the 
Western Railway entered the district 
wti^re partido tobacco is produced at 
its best. The fact that this crop is 
exceedingly profitable has actually 
deterred the development of the su. 
gar business, attracting capital to to- 

bacco instead. From Guira onward 
white cheesecloth covers under which 
the crop is grown are striking high- 
lights in the picture the passenger 

Pineapple Fields. 

This, too, is the most prolific pine- 
apple district in the island. Prom 
Artemisa, a thriving town, placed 
among trees of a green made more 
than usually intense by contrast with 
the red.tiled roofs of its bright coi- 

tion of Paso Real, with which town 
it is connected by excellent macadam- 
ized government road, is the village 
of San Diego de los Banos, a favorite 
social and health resort. The medi. 
cinal qualities of the waters here is 
remarkable. There are good hotels in 
San Diego, one especially (Cabarrouy) 
being old-fashioned and delightful. 
It is the fashion for motoring parties 
enjoying the highway between Havana 
and Pinar del Rio to breakfast there. 

it, around San Juan y Martinez and 
San Luis, the whole country seems 
one scattered village, so thickly scat, 
tered over hills and little valleys be- 
tween are the red tobacco barns of 
"the trust," and the shaggy huts which 
are the homes and barns and assorting 
houses of individual growers and of 
smaller companies. 

Pinar del Rio City. 
The city of Pinar del Rio (reached 
at 11 a. m., just in time for lun- 


ored houses, thousands upon thous- 
ands of crates of "Spanish reds" leave 
in their season for the markets of the 
United States. Over 60 per cent of 
Cuba's whole pineapple crop last year 
was produced along the line of the 
Western Railway. 

San Diego de los Bancs. 
From Candelaria onward the blue 
bulk of the Organo Mountains on tha 
northern skyline holds the eye. In 
these cool green hills, above the sta- 

At Taco Taco and at Herradura are 
groves of American and Canadian cit- 
rus fruit growers. 

Vuelta AbaJo. 
At Consolacion del Sur the traveler 
enters the sacred precincts of "the 
genuine Vuelta Abajo," a region 
lying westward from this town to the 
sea on every hand, where is produced 
the very best tobacco the world's mar- 
ket knows. From here to the city of 
Pinar del RiO, and especially beyond' 

cheon at either of two excellent ho- 
tels. El Ricardo and El Globo) is a 
typical provincial capital. Wide 
white country roads enter to form the 
principal avenues on which gaily col. 
ored, low houses face. There is a 
plaza, where the band plays on cer- 
tain evenings. 

The Valley of Vifiales. 
Good roads invite to several Inter- 
esting drives out from the city; car- 
riages are available. It is from Pinar 


Western Cuba Produces Sugar, To- 
bacco and Pineapples — Sugar 
Industry Reviving. 

del Rio that the traveler sets out 
who will visit the famous Valley of 
Vifiales, a strange, incomparable re. 
gion, where the tobacco planter grows 
his crops on mountain tops to which 
his oxen are hoisted by ropes, or on 
sunken plains (the floors of vanished 
caves) to which nature provides nar- 
row entrances, passes, in fact, guarded 
by weird monolithic mountains, like 
giant, silent sentinels . 

The terminus of The Western Rail- 
way, at present, is Guane, 147 miles 
from Havana, the oldest town in west- 
ern Cuba, situated on the River Cuya- 
guateje, where the Organo Mountains 
terminate in two peaks. Westward 
still beyond Guane the country is first 
hilly, then rolling, then flat, becom- 
ing more and more sandy as the sea- 
shore is approached. Here, however, 
— around Mantua, Remates, Montezu- 
elo, and Las Martinas, — very famous 
tobacco is grown. Beyond the furth- 
est tobacco field there is wilderness, 
and the isolated camps of charcoal 
burners. The island ends in a round- 
ed point where on a lonely coast 
stands the lighthouse of Cape San An- 

Before abolition of slavery and other 
economic changes for which the indus- 
try was unprepared, rendered the 
growing of coffee in Cuba unprofit- 
able, Pinar del Rio province produced 
an excellent and plentiful crop not on- 
ly in the Organo Mountains but on the 
pMns south of these, in a wide neigh- 
borhood centering in San Antonio de 
los Bafios especially. Now that still 
other economic changes have made a 
revival possible, coffee estates are de- 
veloping in the mountains again. Es- 
tates here cost more to cultivate than 
those of the center and east of the 
island, but they yield more per acre, 
and the crop sells at higher prices. 

Rice was formerly grown on land 
south of the Western Railway line 
below San Cristobal, and it may prove 
a profitable crop there in the future. 







Located First on South Coast, the 
Village Moved Bodily Across 
the Island. 

"San Cristobal de la Habana (St. 
Christopber of Havana) was tbe last 
of the seven cities founded in Cuba," 
according to Dr. Jose Maria de la 
Torre, "by the island's conquerer, the 
Adelantado D. Diego Velazquez, and 
It was located originally near the 
mouth of the Guines or Mayabeque 
river (on the south coast across the 
Island from its present site) on St. 
Christopher's Day, July 25, 1515." The 
25th of July is not, however, consid. 
ered the city's natal day; by special 
permission of His Holiness, the Pope, 
November 16 is celebrated instead, in 
order that the festivities may not con- 
flict with those held on the former 
date in honor of St. James, who 
shares the 25th with St. Christopher, 
and who is the patron saint of Spain 
and also of the Island of Cuba. 
St. Christopher of Habana. 

So the village was named St. Chris, 
topher and given the surname Ha- 
bana, because Habana was, according 
to the Spanish rendition of the Indian 
word, the name by which the aborig. 
ines designated all this section of the 

The city was founded on the south 
coast rather than the north because 
at the time all explorations were to 
the south, along the north shore of 
the southern mainland, where the 
Spanish were struggling fiercely for 
a foothold on the Pearl Coast and 
the Isthmus at Darien. Of the conti- 
nent of North America nothing at all 
was known save that an Englishman 
and a Frenchman had found it. 
Two Removals. 

But the site was not agreeable. The 
settlers were plagued by mosquitoes, 
and the new.born babies died from 

bites of the pestiferous insects. The 
village moved, bodily, clear across the 
Island to a site near the mouth of 
the river now called the Almendares, 
which comes into the sea just beyond 
Vedado. The location, however, was 
not easy to defend against pirates 
who roved the seas in search of spoil. 
In 1519 the town again moved, this 
time to its final location on the west 
shore of Carenas Bay, discovered in 
1508 by De Campo. There it settled 
and there it remained, growing stead- 
ily year by year. 

Christopher Columbus was never in 
his life in Havana. He visited Cuba 
twice, however, once in 1492, and 
again in 1494. 

Again in 1494 leaving from La Isa- 
bela, in Santo Domingo, Columbus 
made a voyage along the south coast 
of Cuba as far as the Isle of the Evan, 
gel, as he named that one which is 
known today as the Isle of Pines. In 
returning Columbus touched (again 
according to Navarrette) at Batabano, 
afterwards the site of the original vil- 
lage of San Cristobal, a settlement 

founded in 1518, which later moved 
bodily across the island, and finally 
in 1519, took the present location and 
the full name of this city of San Cris. 
tobal de la Habana. 

Sebastian de Campo. 
The port of the present Havana was 
not discovered until 14 years after in 
1508 when the Comendador Mayor in 
Santo Domingo, who was Fray Nico- 
las de Ovando, "decided to send an 
expedition to explore all the islands of 
Cuba, because up to that time it was 
not known whether it was an island 

or a continent; nor was its size 
known or whether it was dry land — iii 
fact, it was reported that the larger 
part of it was full of swamps." Who 
had spread that slander does not ap. 
pear, but possible it was that party 
of Juan de la Cosa's men who, strug- 
gling back to Santo Domingo from an 
unfortunate attempt at settlement on 
the mainland of South America, were, 
according to Ovando, wrecked on the 
southern coast of Cuba in 1505 or 
1506. There are swales along the 
south shore. 






Royal Law Required Them to Be 
Narrow — Convenience Not 

Havana's streets, especially those 
in the older section of the city, lying 
between Monserrate street and the 
waterfront, are narrow, and the side- 
walks which edge them vary in width 
from three inches to a breadth suffi. 
cient, on some avenues recently re- 
paved, to accommodate two persons 
walking side by side. 

Havana even within the area of the 
old walled city (Punta to the Arsenal, 
Monserrate to the bay), is laid out 
with considerable regularity. The 
streets were made narrow because it 
was royal Spanish law that they 
should be; "in cold places," read the 
requirements, "let the streets be 
wide; in hot places, narrow." And 
narrow they are, the idea being that 
they should be pretty well shaded by 
adjacent buildings. 

No Sidewail<s Planned. 

There was no provision for side- 
walks. A narrow curbing was laid 
along the house wall to protect it 
from passing vehicles and horses. If 
the pedestrian could find footing 
there, well enough, but the curbing 
was not laid with any view to his 

When the present city was founded 
in 1519, the Plaza de Armas was im- 
mediately set aside as the public 
square which is the heart of every 
Spanish town. There were located 
the parish church and government 
headquarters. The first street built 
up was Oficios (Trades). In 1584 
Oficios was the leading retail mart. 
By 1761 Mercaderes had surpassed it, 
for in that year Arrate wrote: "The 
Street of the Merchants is four blocks 
long a'hd on both sides are the shops 
of merchandise, where are displayed 
exquisite cloths of wool and linen and 
silk, and jewelry of gold and silver. 
The street is thronged and while what 
Is bought is measured and counted 
and weighed, what is spent is count, 
less, not measured nor weighed, such 
is the extravagance of the Havanese 
and such their splendor of attire." 
Origin of Names. 
For years many of the streets were 

without names, localities being desig- 
nated by the names of residents there. 
But as the capital grew the lack of a 
definite nomeclature became incon. 
venient and titles were selected and 
bestowed on all the streets of the 

Tejadillo (Little Town) street was 
so named because a house on that 
street was the first in the city of 
Havana to show a tiled roof. All the 
other roofs were of guano. 

commander who had lorded it over 
the town since he and Admiral Pea- 
cock captured it the year before re- 
tired down Obispo street as the Span, 
ish came marching up O'Reilly. 

Obispo (Bishop) street, generally 
so called despite the fact that it has 
been officially renamed in honor of 
the Cuban patriot Pi y Margall, was 
entitled Bishop street because the 
bishop of the diocese, D. Pedro Agus- 
tin Morel de Santa Cruz, who lived at 

Lamparilla (Little Lamp) street 
was so called because of a light which 
a devotee of All Souls kept burning 
on the corner of this street during 

Amargura means "bitterness" and 
in years when it was still per, 
mitted, religious processions proceed- 
ing from the Franciscan convent 
(now the customs house) used to 
observe the stations of the cross the 
full length of Amargura to the her. 


Empedrado (Paved) street was the 
first street paved — from the Cathed- 
ral Plaza to San Juan de Dios 

O'Reilly ani Obispo. 

O'Reilly street received its name 
from General Alejandro O'Reilly (a 
Spaniard despite the cognomen), who 
entered the city by way of that 
avenue when Havana was delivered 
to the Spanish by the English in 1763. 
The Count of Albermarle, the British 

Oficios 94 was accustomed at the 
time the streets were being named, 
to take his evening stroll up and 
down that avenue. 


Obrapia (Pious Act) street got its 
name from the house on the corner 
of Mercaderes, the income of which, 
according to the will of D. Martin 
Calvo de Arrieta read in 1679, was 

I devoted to dowering five orphan girls 

' yearly. 

mitage then located where Cristo 
church is now, on Cristo Plaza. 

Damas street was called Ladies' 
street because of the number of pret- 
ty women who at one time decorated 
its balconies. 


Inquisidor street was so called be. 
cause of Commissary of the Inquisi- 
tion lived in a house facing upon it. 
Refugio (Refugee) street got its name 
from the fact that once General Rich. 

frot was caught in a storm and found 
shelter in the house of a widow 
named Mendez who lived there. Blan- 
co (target) street was so called be- 
cause an artillery school had a target 

In addition to the street names 
many street corners used to have 
their particular titles. The phrase 
"the corner of the little lamp" be- 
cause, in a tobacco shop there shone 
steadily the only street lamp in the 
district. The corner of Compostela 
and Jesus Maria was known as 
"Snake Corner" because of the picture 
of a serpent painted on the wall of 
a house there. Sol and Aguacate was 
"Sun Corner" for a similar reason. 
The block of Amargura between Com. 
po?tela and Villegas was known as 
t-he "Square of the Pious Woman" be- 
cau«-e two very religious ladies lived 
near and because, too, of the particu- 
lar station of the cross located on 
Aina'-pura at that point. The corner 
of Mercaderes and Amargura is the 
' Oorrer of the Green Cross." The 
cross is there and it is green, though 
vhy it should be nobody knows. 
Su'-cceding painters, however, respect 
tradition and on refurbishing the 
house, in the wall of which the cross 
is built, they invariably paint It 



The City of Pinar del Rio is a typ- 
ical provincial capital, by no means 
as interesting as the country beyond 
it, wh€re, especially around San Juan 
y Martinez and San Luis tobacco 
barns and sorting houses land the 
palm-board, thatched homes of gua- 
jiros (countrymen) are no thick over 
hill and valley the district seeniS a 
long-drawn village. At a point a lit- 
tle beyond Galafre the Jj'ue ./aters 
of the Caribbem washing *-h.<) south 
shore of the province pre visible from 
the train windows. The railway 
tracks then swerve northwestward to 
Guane, arriving after a turn or so 
among unexpected hllis. Guane is the 
oldest town in all this end of the is- 
land; it has existed since before 1600. 
Still further west, where the railway 
has not yet arrived, there are pros- 
perous communities (around Mantua, 
Ramates, Montezuelo and Las Mar- 
tinas) where very famous tobacco 
(genuine Vuelta Abajo) is produced. 





Most Cuban of Cuban Cities Desoite 
Extraneous — French, British 
and American Influences. 

Santiago de Cuba (by Cubans called 
Cuba and by Americans called San- 
tiago), is the city of most interest 
among all in Cuba to most tourists 
visiting this country, because, princi- 
pally, its immediate environs were 
the scenes ot fighting done during 
the Spanish-American war. Aside 
from this, its very recent history, the 
city is possessed of all the romance 
Imagination attaches to its shares in 
events even more picturesque though 
possibly not always as important 
which transpired at earlier dates; its 
highways and byways, its parti-col- 
ored buildings; its gardens in nooks 
and crannies, the very people Jipon 
its streets as well as their language 
and their customs, reflect accurately 
the effects of events and conditions 
which have shaped the city's develop - 

Essentially Spanish. 

In large externals, Santiago is a 
Spanish colonial town. Prom close 
along the water front where settle- 
ment first grew with the traffic 
brought in ships from Spain, it has 
extended uphill along steep and nar- 
row streets overhung with balconies 
and barred windows. High over all 
loom the twin towers of its gloomy 
cathedral, still the most imposing 
structure even in the modern town. 
How mightily it must have overshad- 
owed the commencement of the city, 
with which it has grown and suffered 
— in fire, earthquake and pillage. 
Founded in 1514. 
Spaniards arriving in Cuba from 
Santo Domingo, under Valazquez, in 
1511, had already established their 
first capital, Baracoa, and it had been 
decided to found Bayamo, Trinidad 
and Camaguey, when, in the spring 
of 1514, Velazquez began the settle- 
ment of Santiago de Cuba upon its 
present site. It was within easy reach 
of Santo Domingo, where Columbus, 
the admiral, resided; in him vested 
the government of the New World 
then. Moreover, the Spaniaruc had 
discovered signs of copper ana of 
gold in the hills around about the 
harbor. The bay, being excellent, was 

in itself an invitation to them to re- 
main, for it offered safe harbor to 
their ships. 

The French. 

In 1803 or about that time, 27,000 
French citizens, fleeing from Haiti, 
where the negroes had gained control, 
came into eastern Cuba and settled 
especially around Santa Catalina. 
Santiago prospered greatly, owing to 
their ability, energy and money; but 
in 1808, Spain being at war with 

Americans are pi'one to call French, 
in ignorance of any other term to ex- 
press even inadequately a certain gen- 
eral effect which is, the writer be- 
lieves, physical — caused to the eye by 
especially daring combinations ot col- 
or. Others have called Santiago "a 
dream city," laboring evidently to 
word clearly the same feeling of 
something unreal, exotic, or incongru- 
ous in its make-up. Visitors whose 
experience acknowledges "sky-scrap- 

and the sky-line they present would 
as a study in lines and angles, con- 
found Euclid himself. 

It is true, too, that the negroes who 
frequent the markets speak a patois — 
half Spanish, half French. Many of 
the leading families bear French 
names. Out in the suburbs, at Cristo, 
Dos Bocas, Boniato, there are gaudily 
painted country homes, in glades and 
on hilltops, reached by flights of 
steps up or down, half hidden among 


Bonaparte, all who insisted upon re- 
taining French allegiance were com- 
pelled to leave the island; most went 
into Ivouisiana. Some returned in 
1814. Others at once gave up their 
French citizenship and allied them- 
selves definitely with the country of 
their adoption. 

Now there is in Santiago today, 
over and through its Spanish essen- 
tials, a something which is not en- 
tirely Spanish — it is this atmosphere 

ers" and "brown-stone fronts" as nor- 
mal are, certainly, inclined to pinch 
themselves to see if they are awake 
when they gaze up a narrow street in 
Santiago along which, hobnobbing 
riotously together, their eyes behold 
seagreen and mauve houses, and royal 
purple and indigo houses, all trim- 
med in pink and lavender and yellow, 
with red-tiled roofs and glassless 
windows in bright blue frames. The 
buildings are usually of one story only 

fruit trees and flowering shrubs. The 
French influence is unmistakable. 

Nevertheless it seems to the writer 
that the real effect of French immi- 
gration and English and French asso- 
ciation is less important in the details 
mentioned than it is in the character 
of the people who reside in the bright 
houses, the toy villas, or traffic in 
near- French in the market place. 
Santiago de Cuba, despite its artistic 
appearance, is a very practical and 

busy town. In trade and commerce as 
well as in population it is the second 
city of the republic. Its business 
streets are frequented; its stores are 
well stocked, but especially its whole- 
sale establishments and the ware- 
houses and offices ot its merchant 
traders are active. There is nothing 
of sloth here, but instead an alertness 
of wit and execution most untropical. 
Old settlers whipped off the Eng- 
lish under Vernon, and got rich In 
smuggling with Jama; u. They worst- 
ed French corsairs at their own law- 
less game on the high seas, winning 
titles and praise from the Spanish 
king; but they trafficked in slaves 
and rum with the isles France owns 
down around Martinque, despite 
indignation. In short the very can- 
niest of English and French traders — 
those same old pirates to whom 
slaughter and pillage were only part 
of the game — taught the residents of 
Santiago that game so well that they 
have not forgotten it in long years 
since elapsed. From their lively and 
energetic ancestry the Orientals (as 
natives of Santiago province are call- 
ed:) inherited vigor and an aptitude 
for business; along with it, and even 
more important, they got a certain 
openness of mind — itself an effect of 
association with foreigners, and also 
a cause that permitted these foreign- 
ers to leave a lasting impression upon 
the town and its people. The same 
people who built Frenchified villas at 
Cristo, whose servants learned to 
mingle French and Spanish in their 
daily talk, assumed also a freer at- 
titude of mind that began to show 
early in their customs. It was, for 
Instance, a Santiago newspaper which 
first desired "foreign exchanges" and 
wished to print foreign news. 

Santiago never lost hold on hope or 
on real prosperity (because, partly of 
wider experience than other sections 
of Cuba had had), noi even in the 
course of those long, hard wars 
against Spain that were especially 
felt here because this province in- 
sisted upon taking large and patriotic 
part in them. Every revolution against 
Spain began in Santiago and those 
who maintain that these were caused 
by economic estrangement between 
Cuba and the Peninsula, although oc- 
casioned by political friction may 
find evidence to suport their theory 
in that fact. 





Cuba's Most Famous and Fashionable 
Health Resort — Situated in the 
Cool Green Organos. 

The village of San Diego de los 
Banos lies nortward of Paso Real, 
the station where passengers enroute 
to its renowned sulphur springs leave 
the Western Railway train for car- 
riages awaiting to convey them over 
the 14 miles of good government road 
that leads away, like a houlevard, 
through a tropical park, to the health 
resort nestled among foothills of the 
Organo Range. 

San Diego is comparatively modern, 
it was built in 1843 by D. Luis Ped- 
roso second president of The Western 
Railway Company who succeeded his 
brother, the company's very first 
president. The streets of San Diego 
are laid at strict right angles; they 
are rocky where stones meant to pave 
them have been trodden out of placR 
or lifted by vegetation growing be- 
tween flags and among cobbles; Some 
of the houses are raised, in the en- 
deavor to maintain a level against 
the sudden dropping away of the 
street, on foundations the height of 
which makes necessary a flight of 
steps from the sidewalk, when there 
is one, to the front door or portico. 

The village, "situated, in the bot- 
tom of a valley (altitude, by the way 
is 225 meters above sea level) . . . 
seems to be quite surounded with 
compact and beautiful palm groves, 
which lend it an enchanting aspect, 
and form an outlook sufficient in it- 
self to enliven the spirit of the most 
melancholy." — Dr. Jose Miguel Caba- 

The San Diego river bounds the 
town upon two sides. This stream 
takes its rise in the mountains 
above, and flows southward, passing 
through the Portals. All the left 
bank of the river is "sown," as Dr. 
Cabarrouy puts it, "with springs of 
sulphurous water, renowned are with- 
in the village of San Diego. "A slave 
named Domingo developed a repug- 
nant skin disease, and his master, 
with the laudable intention of avoid- 
ing its transmission to his other 
slaves, freed the man giving him lib- 
erty to go away where he would. 
Wandering among the hills Domingo 

chanced upon a cavern (the cave of 
Taita Domingo is still shown to visi- 
tors) near the left bank of the San 
Diego river close by the present 
town, wherein he made his lair, living 
as best he could on roots and fruits. 
He bathed in the stream. One day as 
he was wading up the river he noticed 
with surprise that the water had be- 
came warm. He glanced at the bot- 
tom on which he stood, and saw that 
for some three yards all about him it 

known as Templado and Tigre; where 
their overflows met was designated 
as Paila Bath 

The fame of the waters went abroad 
early. The sick sought them, and 
were cured, the really beneficent 
qualities they possess being aided in 
their work by the resinous, clean, 
cool atmosphere of the place, and by 
the calming restfulness of all the sur- 
roundings. In 1868, San Diego was 
made an acclimation and hospital 

coast and thence to Havana, by boat. 
The revolutionists entered the town 
freely. They would have burned it, 
save that a ransom was promised. 
While negotiations were in progress 
concerning the sum of money to be 
raised, the Spanish came back and 
occupied the barracks. 

In 1895, too, it was that a freshet 
(not unusual to the San Diego river) 
came ripping down the canon and 
in one mad whirl carried away bath 



was white as though the rocks there 
had been whitewashed. He discov- 
ered, too, that in that spot the 
water welled forth, rising slightly 
above the level of the rest." 

In short, Domingo had stumbled 
upon the sulphur spings of San Diego. 
He bathed in them, and was cured 
of his malady, whereupon he return- 
ed to his master and spread the good 

The two main springs were early 

camp for Spanish troops. Municipali- 
ties all over the Island shipped their 
indigent sick to the springs. Fashion 
at the same time favored San Diego. 
Handsome bath houses, with ornate 
columns, garden seats, and long 
walks under arches, were erected 
there. Tn 1895, however, Maoeo rode 
over Pinar del Rio. The village of 
San Dieeo was abandoned by its res- 
idents, who fled — men, women, and 
children — over the hills to the north 

houses, promenades, piping, garden 
seats, arches, and all that stood for 
the opulent, indolent resort of the 
passing regime. 

The health-giving springs remained, 
tmhbling among the debris. Their 
flow continues unchanged, year in, 
year out. Temporary bath houses 
have been erected. Society still fore- 
gathers at San Diego during its sea- 
son, which is from February on into 
the summer. 

Angle and Turret on Monserrate — A 
Fragment Left on Teniente 
Rey Street. 

Havana was once a walled city. 
The walls extended across the prom- 
ontory on which the city stands, from 
the Arsenal to a point near Punta. 
The city proper lay then between the 
walls and the waterfront. Outside, 
where is now the Prado, Central Park 
and all the newer section west of 
them, was open country, divided into 
estates owned by wealthy families. 

The building of the walls was be- 
gun in 1633 and 9,000 men, mostly 
African slaves, contributed pro rata 
by residents of the city, labored upon 
them. A tax on wine went toward 
the payment of the work and the cof- 
fers of Mexico contributed. 

Protection Against Pirates. 

The walls were intended to protect 
the city from pirates who moored 
their ships in San Lazaro inlet and 
attacked Havana from the northwest. 
Lest he facilitate their dreaded raids, 
no man might open a road or other- 
wise utilize the land thereabouts, 
hence the name Vedado, which means 
"forbidden," given to the aristocratic 
suburb which has developed between 
the hill which shelters Santa Clara 
battery and the mouth of the Almen- 
dares river. 

Originally there were two gates 
only in the city walls one nearby 
Punta and another at the head of Mu- 
ralla street. Later two other gates 
were opened. Work on the walls was 
completed in 1740. 

Walls Demolished. 

Havana soon, however, outgrew 
their protection. No loager a neces- 
sity, they became a nuisance. Squat- 
ting tenements sheltered squalor all 
along their length. It was only under 
the Palma administration, 1902- 6, that 
the last of their wreckage was re- 
moved, leaving, as curiosities, a frag- 
ment at the head of Teniente Rey 
street and an angle and turret on 
Monserrate just back of the Church 
of the Angel. 

' ♦ 

Cuba's best known season is the 
winter, but don't f6rget there Is a 
summer season almost as delightful. 





Niche Where the Remains of Colum 
bus Rested — Interesting 

Havana's cathedral faces Cathedral 
or Cienega Square. It is an age- 
stained edifice, planned by the Jes- 
uits as early as 1656. It was erected 
by them in 1724 and after their ex- 
pulsion, became the Cathedral in 1789. 
Theretofore the principal church had 
stood on the Plaza de Armas where 
the presidential palace is today. 

The Cathedral contains many paint- 
ings, some of them of considerable 
antiquity. The interior walls of the 
church are finished in dark marble, 
the massive columns that support the 
domed roof are of somber mahogany. 
The general effect is of majestic and 
gloomy repose. 

In a niche in the chancel wall — 
Bealed now — rested at one time the 
bones of "The Discoverer," Christo- 
pher Columbus. In 1898, when the 
Spanish evacuated Havana, they took 
the remains with them, relnterring 
them with ceremony in the Cathedral 
at Seville. 

Old Dom-inican Convent. 

Filling the block bounded by Obis- 
po, San Ignacio, O'Reilly and Merca- 
deres streets, is the old Dominican 
Convent, founded in 1578. The white 
friars deserted It long ago. Ware- 
house clerks and brokers hold forth 
in its cloistered corridors now. In 
1728 the Dominicans opened in this 
building a school which later became 
the Royal University; it was only af- 
ter the establishment of the republic 
that the institution, become, mean- 
while the National University, with- 
drew to more commodious quarters 
on Principe Hill. The Havana Insti- 
tute of Secondaty Education (the 
high school) occupies rooms in the 
building, facing Obispo street. The 
Church of Santo Domingo keeps its 
place still, in the Mercaderes-O'Reilly 
street corner of the block. 

The Franciscan Convent. 
The Franciscan Convent, its tower 
standing well above any other in the 
city, faces the Plaza de San Francis- 
co, the center of the wholesale dis- 
trict now. The convent building was 
began in 1574 and finished in 1591. 

It was several times remodelled and 
improved. The porter at the en- 
trance will admit visitors. One is 
free to inspect the courts and corri- 
dors, beautiful in the simplicity of 
their recurrent arches. It was dese- 
crated by the English, who held their 
Fictestant services there when thej 
had captured Havana in 1762, and 
from that date it has been consid- 
ered fit for secular uses only. It is 
tse Havana customs house no^v. 

Santa Catalina Convent. 

On O'Reilly street,, between Com- 
postela and Aguacate, is the dreary 
pile of Santa Catalina Convent, a 
nunnery of the old style. Some hun- 
dred women, bound by strictest vows, 
pass their lives within its enclosure. 
The windows are boarded up. No 
gleam of light ever Shines through. 
Nothing of the busy outside world can 
penetrate. Acceptable girls who de- 
sire to immure themselves are re- 

ceived on a year's probation. At the 
end of that time they may leave if 
they will, but they generally remain, 
sometimes despite the prayers of 
their families to whom they are lost 
forever when ti^c great doors close 
on them at the end of their novitiate. 
The convent is very wealthy. It has 
received many bequests and young 
girls on becoming "Brides of Chirst" 
by joining that sisterhood usum ly 
bring some dowry to the institution. 

The convent building was begun in 
1680 and the church was dedicated 
in 1700. It containes relics of the 
holy martyrs Saints Celestino and 
Lucidia, brought from Rome in 1803. 
Belen Church and College. 
Helen Church, corner of Luz and 
Compostella, was built in 1704. It 
takes its name from Santa Maria de 
Belen (Our Lady of Bethlehem), pa- 
troness in Spain of the Franciscan 
order of Jeronymites. The church and 

monastry, and free school in connec- 
tion, were maintained by the Fran- 
ciscan monks for nearly a century. 
Mien the buildings were taken by 
the government for use as barracks. 
In 1853 they were given to the Jes- 
uits, who formed schools, established 
the College of Belen, set up an ob- 
servatory reputed to be the best or- 
ganized in Latin-America, collected a 
library rich in prints and drawings 
illustrating Cuban history; and form- 

ed a museum of native woods and 
natural history specimens. James 
Anthony Froude wrote of them in 
1887, when they had a school of 400 
pay pupils and hundreds free: "They 
keep on a level with the age, they 
are men of learning; they are men 
of science; they are the Royal Socie- 
ty of Cuba. They continue to live 
up to their reputation. The observa- 
tory's reports on storms and especial- 
ly on cyclones govern the conduct of 

Cuba's shipping in the hurricane sea- 
son. The seismic station at Luyano 
belongs to the observatory. The Be- 
len arch spanning Calle del Sol is 
one of the picturesque bits of Ha- 

La Merced Church. 
La Merced Church on the corner of 
Cuba and Merced streets, is one of 
the most fashionable of Havana's 
churches. Among its possessions is 
a faded painting representing, with 
considerable inaccuracy in dates, 
names and drawing, what is consider- 
ed to have been the first miracle per- 
formed in the New World, on a bat- 
tlefield in Santo Domingo when Col- 
umbus and his men appealed to Our 
Lady of Mercies for help against the 
Indians and were rewarded with sight 
of the Virgin and the Child. 

Cristo Church. 
Cristo Church on the plaza of the 
same name at the head of Amargura 
street, has Catholic services in Eng- 
lish on Sunday mornings. Immed- 
iately in the rear is the Augustinian 
College for boys, at the head of which 
Is Father Moynihan, an American, 
who succeeded Father Jones, also an 
American, now Bishop of Porto Rico. 
Other Catholic Churches. 
The Church of the Holy Angel, a 
minaretted edifice on Pena Pobre hill, 
j is a comparatively modern structure, 
jbut well worth visiting if for nothing 
1 more than the views down the queer, 
j narrow streets that lead to its door. 
' San Agustin Church is on the corner 
I of Cuba and Amargura. The view 
! from the churchyard of the Jesus del 
Monte Church, located on the Jesus 
del Monte Caizada and reached by 
street cars passing Central Park 
(marked Jesus del Monte in red) is 
one of the most beautiful to be had 

Protestant Missions. 
There're many Protestant churches 
in Havana. The Episcopal Cathedral 
is at Neptuno and Aguila; the Baptist 
Temple is on the corner of Dragones 
and Zulueta; the Presbyterian church 
is at Salud 40 (take Principe cars to 
Lealtad and walk one block north) ; 
the Methodist church is at Virtudes 
10, and the Congregational at Somer- 
uelos 6. All hold morning services 
on Sunday. Strangers are welcomed. 


Heat prostrations in Cuba are un- 





The Oldest Inhabitable and Inhabited 
Building in the Western Hemi- 
sphere Is in Havana. 

To the tourist the most interesting 
features of Havana are its "castles" 
which are fortifications; they have 
long since ceased to be used as resi- 
dences of royal officials of highest 
rank, but they have retained the gen- 
eral title given them, in days vfhen 
the supposition, at least, was that 
they were so used. 

"The oldest and by all odds the 
most interesting fortification in all 
Cuba," according to I. A. Wright, In 
"Cuba," "is La Fuerza, half hidden 
between the senate and the old post- 
office building on the Plaza de Armas. 
Here, now, is a place to see. It is, in 
form, quadrilateral, having a bastion 
at each of its four corners. It is 25 
yards in height; the walls are 
double and terrepleins are supported 
on arches, so I read, though what the 
statement means I have no more no- 
tion than others who ponder guide 
books and arc impressed with war- 
like terminology. There used to be 
a moat. The drawbridge is replaced 
by a permanent plank walk. They 
say there is a bell in the tower which 
formerly sounded the hours and 
clanged alarm at sight of a hostile 
sail in years before there was a Ca- 
baiias, a Morro, even a Punta or any 
walls to protect the town La Fuerza 
alone guarded. 

Begun by De Soto. 

"Work on La Fuerza was begun by 
Hernando de Soto and by 1544 a royal 
decree went forth that all warships 
entering thereafter should salute the 
place (then almost completed) with 
. a ceremony not enjoyed by any other 
city in the New World save Santo 
Domingo. Here in Fuerza De Soto 
lived and from here he sailed away 
to explore unknown areas of his ju- 
risdiction which embraced everything 
he might discover to the north; he 
found the Mississippi and a grave in 
its dark waters. On his departure 
De Soto left La Fuerza and with it 
his office as governor in command of 
his bride, the Lady Isabel de Boba- 
dilla, 'like her mother, a woman of 
character, and kindly disposition, of 
very excellent judgment and appear- 

ance.' For four years she awaited 
his return, scanning the sea, the story 
goes, from the little tower above 
Fuerza which one may discover by 
looking close through intervening 
tree-tops from a certain position in 
the Plaza de Armas. The little 
bronze image upon the top of it is 
'La Habana' and until one has set 
eyes upon it one has not 'seen Ha- 
vana,' as the usual raillery runs. 
When at last the remnants of De 

Soto's fleet limped in by the harbor's 
mouth, and survivors, landing, has- 
tened to tell the Lady Isabel of her 
husband's fate, her heart broke, and 
the chronicilers add briefly 'she died.' 
Oldest Building. 
"La Fuerza is then the oldest hab- 
itable and inhabited building in the 
western hemisphere. Certain edifices 
at Santo Domingo antedate it (con- 
vents that while Christopher Colum- 
bus still lived arose in now despised 

Haiti in size and architecture sur- 
passing, their ruins show, any church 
edifice upon Fifth avenue today ex- 
cepting only the Catholic cathedral 
there), but they are abandoned 
wreckage, whereas La Fuerza houses 
a garrison of Rural Guards; its dun- 
geons are storerooms and General 
Monteagudo and his family reside on 
the second floor. 

"To make him comfortable they 
have repaired the stairway; smooth 

cement steps have replaced the old 
stones, worn hollow by the feet which 
through the centuries had passed, up 
and down. Arms and ammunition ol 
latest design are packed away in tha 
dungeons — damp and silent chambers, 
lighted by way of narrow apertures 
cut in the thick walls. I wonder into 
which of these they thrust "Mr. 
Bryant, prize master!' 

"It was in the year 1779, to digress 
in consideration of Mr. Bryant, while 

the American war for independence 
was on, that out of the north cama 
sailing the Yankee sloop Hero, square 
sterned, 20 tons, carrying four gum 
and 40 men. Captain Caleb Green of 
Providence, Rhode Island. She had a 
cargo of hoops and long staves and 
she was bound to sell the same at 
Santo Domingo, in commendabia Yan- 
kee fashion. There were, however, 
two British vessels, the Carlisle and 
the Gayton, cruising West Indian 


waters in wait for precisely such as 
she. She was taken, to be brief, and 
a prize crew was put aboard, in com- 
mand of 'Mr. Bryant, prize master.' 
'With strong gales and cloudy' they 
got her by Monte Christi, bound 
straightaway for the prize courts of 
Jamaica. They were chased, howev- 
er, by a Yankee brig through 'brisk 
gales and hazy' and to keep right be- 
fore the wind and outdistance her, as 
they did, they went far north of their 

course and brought up with a crash, 
in a storm, on the shores of eastern 
Cuba. Here is no place to repeat de- 
tails I read with such interest in Mr. 
Bryant's log book preserved in the 
files of the National Archives of Cu- 
ba, then in the upper story of La 
Fuerza. They 'caught a young shark 
and eat him;' they caught 'some crab- 
bies and eat them', too; and they 
robbed a pelican's nest of its young. 
They flew "signals in distress" and 
a brig and a sloop went by, disregard- 
ing these as well as the voice of 
their swivel gun. They were finally 

! taken off by 'ye Havannah,' a small 
schooner whose master 'used' the 
castaways 'discreetly,' but at its des- 
tination. Port au Prince, they were, 
in accordance with the hospitable 
customs of the time, committed to 
the guardhouse. Mr. Bryant escaped 
'just as the Spaniards were saying 
their pater nostra.' A guide he brib- 
ed left him 'to wander about to and 
fro in a very dark and dismal night 
far from house or anything like a 
house, although I had,' Mr. Bryant 
adds, 'before paid his fee.' Fortune 

I had not, however, entirely deserted 
'the Englishman,' for he got liberty 

; from a 'Humain Spaniard, a gentle- 
man, to stay at his house,' upon which 
he came, where he amused himself, 
until opportunity should offer to get 
to the Br.itish possession of Jamaica, 
by teaching English to the family of 
his benefactor, Capt. D. Bernabe de 
la Torre, and from them, in turn, ac- 

i quiring at least their names in Span- 
ish. He left on hearing that a fish- 
erman from Jamaica was on shore. 

I The ladies assembled as he departed 
and wished him 'good luck,' on which 
he, not ungallant, gave them three 
chears.' The fisherman refused him 
passage and set him ashore on Sandy 
Key 'where two Spaniards, a mulatto, 
and a portageezeman was living to 
fish for turtle.' Time went by. 'No 
appearance of any relief,' Mr. Bryant 
confided to his log, 'and God only 
knows when any will offer .... 
Every day seems a year and still not 
the smallest appearance of any re- 
lief . . . .' Then blank pages. Mr. 
Bryant reached Cuba alive, however, 
for from Bayamo they forwarded to 
the captain general the documents I 
examined — 'papers found on the Eng- 
lishman.' Possibly they brought him, 
too, to Havana " 






Heretofore Inaccessible, Now Rapidly 
Developing In Sugar, Cattle and 
Varied Enterprises. 

The territory which is now the pro- 
vince of Camaguey was early settled 
by the Spanish conquerors of Cuba. 
Columbus himself may have visited 
its north shores in 1492; certainly 
Campo coasted them in 1508. Its 
next European visitor seems to have 
been Alonso de Hojeda, wrecked on 
the south side in 1510-11 and saved 
from death by kindly Indians. In 
1.511-12 a party reconnoitering for 
Diego Velazquez, first governor of 
Cuba (established then at Baracoa), 
marched into the district from the 
east, under the command of thp same 
Pantilo de Navarez who later figured 
in American history. At some dis- 
tance from Caonao (the Indian vil- 
lage where Hojeda had been welcom- 
ed and fed when most he needed 
care), Navarez and his hundred men 
established the first settlement in all 
this part of Cuba. 

The town, however, which later 
became Camaguey, was begun at 
some point on the north shore, in 
1515 — probably at Baga on Nuevitas 
bay. It must have removed to the 
interior very early (1530), however, 
since no records and few traditions 
exist concerning a site earlier than 
that it now occupies on a plain mid- 
way between coasts and 850 feet 
above sea level. 

By 1827 Camaguey had become the 
second city in the island. It now 
ranks fifth, Havaaa, population, 
297,159; Santiago de Cuba, popula- 
tion, 45,470; Matanzas, populaticn, 
36,000; Cienfuegos population 30,100, 
preceding it. 

The City of Cannaguey. 

The city of Camaguey looks its 
antiquity. It is full of quaint and 
picturesque nooks and corners. "The 
projecting wooden window grilles, the 
heavy cornices and overhanging, flut- 
ed tiled roofs, the crumbling mason- 
ry, and the venerable aspect of 
streets and houses," as the Standard 
Guide observes, "make a succession 
of attractive pictures which lure the 
visitor to extended explorations 
Many of the streets are so torturous 
that it is impossible to see far ahead, 

and one is continually piqued to dis- 
cover what new pictures may be 
around the bend. No two streets in 
Camaguey run parallel, nor do any 
two meet at right angles. The street 
plan is a study in curves; the strang- 
er must direct his course by pure 

Its Churches. 

Among the chief attractions of 
Camaguey are its several time-worn 
churches. They actually look older 

today. Funds were contributed by 
the state and by private persons. The 
first tower was built in 1776; it fell 
through the roof soon after. The 
present tower was built in 1794. The 
building was improved in 1775. 

La Merced, according to the Stan- 
dard Guide again, "was built about 
the year 1628, by missionaries of 
Our Lady of Mercy .... In Cama- 
guey the order died out until only one 
old priest was left to care for the 

of Christ .... The church is re- 
markable tor its extremely massive 
construction . . . . " 

La Soledad, another church worth 
visiting, was a hermitage in 1697; 
the present building was begun in 
1758. The frescoes which make the 
interior unique were painted about 

Hotel Camaguey. 

There is, moreover, a good hotel — 
Hotel Camaguey, owned and operated 


Some of the Rules and Usages Gov- 
erning Conduct of Cars in the 
City and Country. 


than they are. The cathedral existed 
(in organization) when the settle- 
ment becoming Camaguey stood on 
the north coast; with the town it was 
transported to its present site about 
1530. The building originally erect- 
ed for It here was burned on Decem- 
ber 15, 1616, in a fire which destroy- 
ed almost all th« town. The present 
edifice was at once begun. Its con- 
struction cost $16,500, at a time when 
a dollar was worth more than it is 

church; before his death it was taken 
over by the Barefoot Carmelites, of 
whom there are now 15 in the monas- 
try attached to the church .... 
The architectural lines of the church 
are interesting, but there is lacking 
richness of mural decoration. The 
high altar of silver is resplendent; 
it was fashioned of 40,000 Spanish 
dollars. There is a sepulchre of ham- 
mered silver, weighing 500 pounds, | 
which contains an effigy of the body : 

by the Cuba Railroad Company. The 
immense structure this hotel occupies 
was built and long used as a Spanish 
cavalry and infantry barracks. The 
great corridors are striking features 
and the inner garden (patio), bright 
with foliage plants and tropical flow- 
ers, is beautiful indeed. The drain- 
age, plumbing, and all sanitary ap- 
pointments are of the best. Pure 
drinking water is supplied from an 
artesian well. 

The center of the street in Havana 
is the automobilist's; other vehicles 
keep to the sides where when a crowd 
is out, at carnival time, the police 
hold them in lines moving in opposite 

There are no rules or regulations 
1 governing automobiles once they are 
j outside the city limits, excepting at 
Camp Columbia, where army authori- 
ties have fixed eight miles an hour as 
the speed limit while passing through 
the reservation. Cars should slow up 
on aproaching hamlets and villages. 
This is a courtesy which should be 
the more readily accorded because it 
is not demanded, but merely confi- 
dently expected as a matter of course. 
' As few accidents have ocurred on 
country roads of Cuba, the automo- 
bilist is welcome everywhere. It is 
customary for persons meeting on the 
road to salute each other. The sur- 
prising variety of smiles and grave in- 
clinations of head and body received 
in recognition makes the effort well 
worth while. 

A knowledge of Spanish is not nec- 
essary. The tourist should, however, 
learn to pronounce properly the name 
of the place he means to reach or 
have the name written on a card in 
plain characters. Then in case of 
doubt as to his way there, he need 
but pronounce the name or show the 
card to persons he meets. The tourist 
will find everybody willing to help 
him. The Cuban who directs him may 
not speak a word of English, but he 
will converse so well in pantomine 
that the traveler, even without any 
knowledge of Spanish will understand. 

It is quite Impossible to get really 
lost in the country; there is always 
the alternative of turning back to 
Havana (or Matanzas or Pinar del 
Rio), tor in the provinces all good 
roads leading in the general direction 
of the capital city inevitably arrive 
there. Cuba is properly policed in the 
city and in the country; but even 
were provincial police in blue, and ru- 
ral guards in khaki entirely absent 
from the government highways, which 
they patrol in pairs no traveler would 
be in any wise molested. 





La Fuerza Is a Romantic Relic of 
Havana's Remote Past — Was 
Begun in 1538. 

Near the foot of O'Reilly street, to 
the left of the Presidential Palace, as 
one faces the harbor, is to be seen a 
quaint old fort, of little importance in 
this day, except for its antiqueness, 
but once the only defence the little 
town of Havana boasted in those days 
of the supremacy of the jolly rover 
and his black flag. 

No place in Cuba is so full of ro- 
mantic interest as this little fort. 
Here it was that Hernando de Soto 
kissed his bride good-bye, as he sail- 
ed away for Florida, on his journey 
which resulted in the discovery of the 
great "Father of Waters," the Missis- 
sippi. From that little watch tower, 
nearest the harbor's edge, did the dis- 
coverer's wife wave him a fond fare- 
well and godspeed as he sailed down 
the harbor's mouth and turned his 
vessel's nose toward the Floridian 
Bhore. From that same tower for four 
long years did the little Spanish wom- 
an strain her eyes for the return of 
her warrior husband, she offered up 
prayers to the Holy Virgin, to save 
him from the perils of fever and In- 
dians lurking in the wild country to 
which he had gone. From it she saw, 
after so many years, a sail from Flor- 
ida's direction and her heart was fill- 
ed with joy and expectation. The 
travelers were of De Soto's party, but 
their leader was not with them. Gent- 
ly they told her how they had laid, as 
he requested, his body in the bed of 
the great river^ he had discovered. 
Even their war-hardened features 
quivered as they told the last love 
messages sent by the dying husband 
to his short time bride. Near the 
same little tower, and in a room 
which may still be seen, the little 
woman, like a delicate flower exposed 
to the direct rays of the sun, wilted 
away and died four days after she 
learned her husband's fate. 

La Fuerza was built about fifty 
years before Morro. As the latter 
and Cabanas were built owing to the 
depredations of the English, La Fuer- 
za was built because of the French. 
Along in 1538 Havana was at the mer- 
cy of the pirates and freebooters who 

infested the waters of the New 
World. The Spaniard had up to that 
time only a precarious foothold on 
his New World possessions, and any 
settlement was at the mercy of any 
pirate ship's captain who decided to 
mak« a raid. 

During these precarious times, Her- 
nando De Soto was the Spanish gov- 
ernor of Cuba. He had just come over 
to the New World, bringing with him 
his lovely Spanish bride, who prefer- 
red to share, as far as she could, the 
perils of her husband in the new and 
comparatively unknown land. About 
this time French pirates visited Ha- 
vana and carried off much gold. 
Quaintly but very forcibly Ogilvie de- 
scribes the visit of the Frenchman as 

"But Havana was not so strongly 
fortified in former times, for Anno 
1536 it could not resist a mean French 
Pyrate, who, losing the rest of his 
Fleet, was driven hither by storm, 
and conquering Havana, had burnt 
the same, consisting at that time of 
wooden houses covered with thatch, 
had not the Spaniards redeemed 
them from the fire for seven hundred 
Ducats; with which money the French 
set sail, when the day following three 
ships arrived from New Spain before 
Havana, and having unladen their 
goods, and preparing themselves for 
battle, pursued the Pyrate: who get- 
ting sight of the Admiral, who sailed 
before, durst not venture to engage 
him alone, but staid for the other two 
ships: from which cowardly action 
the French Pyrate taking courage, fell 
on the Spanish Admiral, who without 
tiring a gun ran his ship ashore, and 
deserted the same; the next one 
thereby discouraged, tacking about, 
made away from the enemy; on which 
the third also followed. Insomuch that 
at last they were all three taken by 
the French; who encouraged with this 
unexpected victory steered their 
course a second time to Havana, 
where they got as much more money 
from the inhabitants as before." 

When De Soto heard of Havana's 
plight he was at Santiago de Cuba, 
then the capital of the island but 
came at once to this city where, af- 
ter looking over the ground, he de- 
cided a fortification should at once 
be begun and the site of La Fuerza 
was selected. Captain Mateo Acer- 
tuna, Havana's first mayor, happened 

to be an engineer also, and to him 
was entrusted the building of the fort. 
De Soto remained here until the de- 
fense was completed on May 12, 1539, 
when with a large force of men and 
ships, said to have been the largest 
and best equipped ever seen up to 
that time in the Indies, he set sail for 
Florida on his voyage of discovery. 
He left his young wife Isabel as com- 
mander of La Fuerza fortress. 

Several times in the years immed- 
iately following the building of this 
fort, was the foresight of De Soto evi- 
denced, for often was it the only pro- 
tection from assaults of the rapidly 
growing town. In 1543, four warships 
commanded by a French captain 
named Robert Baal, attacked the city 
and landed where La Punta fort now 
stands at the foot of the Prado, but 
the guns of La Fuerza repulsed the 
Frenchman so vigorously that he was 
compelled to flee to his ships panic- 
stricken, leaving his killed and 
wounded behind. Later a French cor- 
sair named Captain Jacob de Sores, 
attacked Havana with better fortune, 
for he captured both fort and city. 
He sacked and burned churches and 
houses and greatly damaged La Fuer- 
za but the latter was quickly repaired 
and garrisoned with many more troops 
and equipped with more guns. 

All the old maps of the West In- 
dies bear legends showing the tracks 
of the old galleons, the harbor here 
being the rendezvous of the plate 
fleets from Mexico and Peru. Some 
of these read as follows: 

"Advice is sent hither from whence 
it is despatcht over Land to Carta- 
gena, Panama and Lima to hasten the 
King's Treasure. Prom Cartagena 
after some stay they sail for ye Ha- 
vana to meet there the Flota. The 
Gallions (& Flota usually Joyning at 
the Havana ye whole Armada sails 
for Spain." 

Thus it can be seen that the little 
fort played no small part in the early 
history of Spain's possessions in thfe 
New World, guarding as it did not 
only Havana but the many cargoes tl 
gold and silver stopping here on their 
way to the Spanish treasury. In re- 
cognition of the services of that nttle 
pile of stone, the King of Spain in 
1544, issued a royal decree in which 
he ordered all Spanish warships to 
fire it a salute upon entering the har- 

The fort was for a long time the 
official residence of the governors of 
the island. Among the most notable 
of these is probably Pedro de Menen- 
dez d'Aviles, who, three years before, 
in 1563, had founded St. Augustine, 
Florida. Arrete writes that the offi- 
cers of that period did much to adorn 
La Fuerza, providing reception halls 
and luxurious sculpture in the interior 
and ornamental balconies on the out- 

The work is a quadralateral fortress 
having a bastion at each of the cor- 
ners. It is 25 yards in height, the 
walls are double and the terrepleins 
are supported by arches. It was sur- 
rounded by a deep moat. A bell in 

the tower sounded the hours day and 
night and was rung by the sentinel 
always posted there, to alarm the 
town at the approach of a hostile sail. 
Later when Morro was built La Fuer- 
za would repeat the signals from that 
fort. The bronze figure of an Indian 
girl on the tower, holding a cross and 
facing the gulf, was known to the 
sailors as La Habana. 

Cuba's single-starred banner is the 
third gazers from this old tower have 
seen flying there as symbols of sove- 
reignty. The bell now in the tower 
bears the date 1706. With the excep- 
tion of the fort at Santo Domingo, La 
Fuerza is the oldest fortification in 







Site Where Mass Was First Celebrat- 
ed When City of Havana 
Was Founded. 

Unostentatiously nestling under the 
shade of giant ceiba tree, across the 
Plaza de Armas square fronting the 
Presidential Palace, is an unassuming 
little building which no visitor should 
fail to see and learn of its historic in- 
terest. Under the shade of the par- 
ent of the same tree, occurred the 
first religious ceremony ever held in 
Havana. The occasion was the found- 
ing of the present site of this city. 

The Spaniards carried the Christian 
religion with them wherever they 
went in their journeys to the New 
World and no colonies were estab- 
lished without elaborate religious for- 
malities and the saying of mass. 

In 1519, when Diego de Velazquez 
founded Havana, and before any 
buildings were erected, the priests 
prepared to say mass and the inviting 
shade of a great ceiba tree standing 
near the harbor was chosen as the 
best available place. There the cere-- 
mony occurred and the place was al- 
ways, even in that remote time, held 
sacred by the inhabitants. Just a 
short time after the historic cere- 
mony the place was carefully marked 
and its significance shown. In 1747 
Captain General Francisco Cagigar 
erected as a permanent memorial an 
obelisk of stone. 

Arrete, the historian, writing in 
1755, stated that this year the ceiba 
tree was in "full bloom" and its age 
then was calculated at 400 years. Un- 
der the shade of the tree rested the 
remains of Christopher Columbus. 
When the bones of the discoverer 
were brought to Havana in 1795, they 
were, before being deposited in the 
Cathedral, placed in an ebony sar- 
cophagus under the tree and formally 
inspected by the Captain General and 
staff and were pronounced to be the 
genuine remains. 

A more elaborate memorial was de- 
cided upon in 1828 and on March 9 
of that year, the present building was 
dedicated and called El Templete or 
Little Temple. The dedication was 
the occasion of a great clerical and 
military display. The governor of the 

island and his staff attended in their 
gayest uniforms and the bishop was 
resplendent in his pontificial robes. 
Five thousand soldiers took part in 
the military procession and many 
thousands of citizens. Images of 
saints were taken from the churches 
and mass was again said in the same 
place as three hundred years before. 

The bronze tablet which the visitor 
sees on entering the little enclosure 

"During the reign of His Majesty 
Don Fernando VII, under the Presi- 
dency and Governorship of Don Fran- 
cisco Dionisio Vives, the most faith- 
ful, religious and pacific Havana 
erected this simple monument, con- 
secrating the place where, in the year 
1519, was celebrated the first mass 
and holy office, the Bishop Don Juan 
Jose Diaz de Espada solemnizing the 
Divine Sacrifice of the Mass on the 
9th day of March, 1828." 

Three paintings of large size by 
Escobar are very interesting. The 
first one pictures the installation of 
the first municipal' council of San- 
tiago de Cuba with Captain General 
Diego de Velazquez presiding. The 
painting gives one an excellent idea 
of the costumes and customs of that 
distant time. The secor.i picture por- 
trays the first celebraiion of mass, 
and shows the Indians looking on in 
wonder and raised hands exclaiming 
"Habana." The third painting com- 
memorates the dedication of the 
building itself showing likenesses of 
Governor Vila and officers ot his staff. 
The bust of Columbus in tts court is 
considered as a good portrait of the 
discoverer, and was carefully studied 
by the American painter John Van- 
derlyn, when he came to Havana to 
find a model for his painting of "The 
Landing of Columbus," hanging now 
in the rotunda of the capitol at Wash- 

The Temple is open officially once 
a year, November 16, and that on 
Saint Christopher's Day. Then it Is 
visited by hundreds of people 
throughout the day, many people 
making the pilgrimage to the place 
religiously once a year. Visitors who 
make special arrangements can gen- 
erally be allowed to see the Temple 
through the courtesy of the mayor of 
Havana, who will deliver the keys to 
an employe of the city who will act 
as guide. 


The Spanish Provincial Organizations. 
Clerks of Commerce 

There are in Havana many mutual 
benefit associations. The biggest of 
these are the Clubs of the Clerks of 
Commerce and the Asturian Society. 
E;ich numbers nearly 30,000 members. 

The Clerks of Commerce own a 
magnificent new club house on the 
corner of Trocadero and Prado. It is 
well worth a tourist's inspection. 
The ball room on the top floor is a 
very beautiful hall; there is nothing 
like it elsewhere in Cuba. 

To this club belong great numbers 
of the clerks in the stores of the city, 
and also the owners of shops and es- 
tablishments (they were clerks once 
in their own day). Membership Is 
not, however, confined to clerto. 

Membership costs a dollar and a 
half a month and entitles a man to 
the use of the clubhouse with all its 
conveniences of reading rooms, night 
schools, social halls and cafe; mem. 
bers and their families are invited to 
all the dances and other entertain- 
ments the club gives. Moreover, in 
case of sickness, a member receives 
medical attention. A cot in the hos. 
pital his club supports is his if he 
needs it. If he dies the club will 
bury him decently. 

Provincial Societies. 

The Centro Asturiano is similarly 
organized. It has a committee on 
immigration which is, in fact, a sort of 
employment agency. When a mem, 
ber or an outsider either, for that 
matter, applies to the Asturian club 
for s» many men for this or that 
v'crk, this committee on Immigration 
will look over its lists and hunt 
members to meet the demand, or if 
necessary it will go to Triscornia Im. 
migrant E':L"''n and find the men 
among recently arrived immigrants. 
The agent may at the time he gives 
them the job persuade the immigrants 
to join the club, but they are repaid 
in tremendous benefits for the small 
investment of $1.50 "plata" a month. 
Similarly, that committee will take 
charge of an immigrant arriving from 
Spain, if friends here have paid his 

$1.50 and made him a member; they 
will find work for him and help him 
to get to it without being "fleeced" 
by sharpers. If he arrives sick they 
will care for him without charge 
above the monthly fee. 

There is also a Galician society, 
which recently bought the National 
Theater on Central Park, to erect a 
new club house there. There is a 
Balearic society, and a Canary Island 
association, and a number of other 
smaller organizations of the same 

Leading Clubs. 

Havana also has her clubs of a dif- 
ferent kind. There is the Spanish 
Casino, a social commingling ot Span. 

iards and friends of theirs of other 
nationalities. There is the German 
club, considered very exclusive, and 
the Union club, which is Havana's 
Jockey club, a very aristocratic as. 
semblage of gentlemen. There is the 
Ateneo, a literary and social club, 
and the American club, around which 
centers the social life of English, 
speaking residents of Havana. 


.... I have been Priest of Partagas 

a matter of seven years; 
And the gloom of my bachelor days 

is flecked with the cheery night. 
Of stumps that I burned to Friendship 

and Pleasure and Work and Fight. 
— Kipling in The Betrothed. 






Visitor Here Finds Within Ninety 
IVIiles of tile United States a 
European City. 

Within ninety miles of the United 
States the visitor to Havana finds 
himself in a city as completely Euro- 
pean, and in some ways more so, 
than Europe itself. Here are to be 
found streets, customs and peoples 
just as they were hundreds of years 
ago, while in European cities much 
of this is hidden from the average 
visitor unless he strays outside of the 
beaten path. Modern ways and in- 
ventions have robbed much of inter- 
est to the traveler in Europe. In vis- 
iting ancient cities such as Havana, 
the visitor expects to see something 
different and here he is not disap- 

Approaching Havana from the sea 
one is attracted by the bright colors 
of the city's houses. The view has 
often been described as very much 
like Naples. The houses are gaily 
painted in bright yellows, blues, pinks 
and browns, all crowned with their 
terra cotta tiles. There is something 
about the view that commands ad- 
miration even of the artist. Strange 
as it may seem, the variety of the 
colors does not strike the eye as lack- 
ing in harmony. No matter when the 
sight is seen, whether by the morning 
sunrise, the sunset or in midday, the 
sight from the sea never fails to ex- 
cite admiration and pleasure. 

Passenger ships coming to Havana 
do not, as a rule, come to the dock, 
but anchor out in the bay. This is 
due to certain people high in power 
owning the lighterage privileges. A 
tug takes the passenger to the Ma- 
china wharf where polite custom 
house officials examine the baggage 
quickly, and once their stamps are 
on bag or trunk one is free to seek 
his favorite hotel. Tourists coming 
to Havana are known by the officials 
to be coming for pleasure and are 
not bringing in dutiable goods so that 
the examination of such baggage is 
more formality than anything else. 

Outside the wharf gates carriages 
are waiting and for twenty cents one 
or two passengers are hurriedly driv- 
en to any hotel in the city proper. 

This drive, through the oldest portion 
of the city, through streets so narrow 
that coaches must drive in the same 
direction because there is not room 
to pass, with the Spanish tongue 
flooding the ears with its pleasant 
cadences, causes one to realize ho 
has stepped Into a new world dis- 
tinctly different to that he has left 

One feature always impressing the 
visitor is the heavy style of the archi- 
tecture. Most of the houses are of 
one story or of two, but one story in 
Havana is almost as lofty as two else- 
where. Skyscrapers are unknown in 
Cuba, but within the last few years 
a tendency to use air space to more 
profit has been shown and there are 
now several buildings of three or 
more stories. One of these is that 
of the Henry Clay and Bock & Com- 
pany, another is that of the National 
Bank of Cuba, and another is that of 
the produce exchange building, known 
as La Lonja. 

The walls are constructed of lime- 
stone and rough rubble work called 
locally "mamposteria." They are 
very thick and massive and whether 
they are lasting is easily answered 
by inquiring the many years these old 
house have been built. There was 
nothing cheap about the early con- 
struction methods of the Spaniards, 
their houses were built to withstand 
the test of time. 

One is surprised to see heavy iron 
bars before every window, making it 
more than true that every man's 
home is his castle. It has been sug- 
gested that the first permanent struc- 
ture in Havana was a fortress and 
the rest of the architecture followed 
the style. The facts are that in the 
olden days and up to recently, Ha- 
vana's streets were filled with vol- 
unteer soldiers, among whom, as in 
all armies, there was a very large 
lawless element and it was largely to 
protect against this class that those 
heavy bars were placed. No yards are 
seen in the old part of the city. The 
houses are built flush with the street 
and each wall is built flush with the 
house alongside. The doors harmon- 
ize with the barred windows, they 
are massive affairs, ten and some- 
times fifteen feet high and often made 
of solid mahogany or some other rich- 
ly colored and valuable native wood. 
They are sometimes heavily studded 

and have great massive bars and the 
key required to lock them is no joke. 
It sometimes weighs a halt pound and 
would make a good weapon in the 
hands of the house owner were he 
attacked. Sometimes the door has a 
little wicket door fitted with a slide 
so that the house occupant can in- 
spect any one asking for entrance be- 
fore the door is opened. 

Architects from the United States 
have criticised what they term is 
wasteful construction methods in Ha- 
vana, but there is reason for every- 
thing. The reason in Havana is the 
climate. Houses are so arranged that 
they are generally cool no matter 
what kind of tropical weather pre- 
vails. The thick walls and heavy 
roofs are to withstand the glare of 
the tropical sun, the windows are 
without glass so as to let in the coo! 
breezes. One is not long in Havana 
before he realizes the good sense used 
in building houses as they are. The 
open space in the center of each 
house, so strange to the visitor, serves 
a most useful purpose. By means of 
it the problem of ventilating the 
houses is always solved. In these pa- ; 
ties there is always a bit of green, if 
nothing more than a cocoanut strug- 
gling for its existence in an empty 
John D. Rockefeller oil can. Many 
of these patios are converted into 
veritable little gardens. The flowers 
are grown in cans or tubs, the earth 
being brought to the front door by 
real estate dealers who peddle their 
land in carts, selling it not by the lot 
or by the square foot but by the five 
gallon can. 

Havana's houses are so constructed 
that one can live in them and practi- 
cally enjoy all of the benefits of an 
outdoor life. It has had a distinct 
effect upon the physical health of the 
inhabitants and this benefit would be 
still more increased were it not that 
nights natives close up their rooms 
so tightly as to almost hermetically 
seal them. This practice among the 
poorer classes has had a detrimental 
effect, that the open air life of the 
day time has not been altogether able 
to remove. The health authorifcies 
are, however, predicating the evil of 
such habits and is accomplishing 
much good. 

Nearly all houses have flat roofs 
which greatly add to their attraction, 
as they are favorite resorts in the 

evenings. In 1851 Frederika Bremer, 
writing of Havana, said: 

"In the evening after tea, I go up 
to the roof of the house, which is 
flat as are all the roofs here, and is 
called azotea, surrounded by a low 
parapet, upon which stand urns, 
which are generally gray, with rais- 
ed green ornaments, and little gilt 
frames at the top. Here I walk alone 
until late into the night, contemplat- 
ing the starry heavens above me and 
the city below my feet. The Morro 
Light, as the lofty beacon fire in the 
Morro fortress is called, is kindled 
and beams like a large, steadily 
gleaming star, with the most resplen- 
dent light over the ocean and the 

city. The air is delicious and calm, 
or breathes merely like a slumbering 
child around me. I hear on all sides, 
the sweetest, most serene litt'le twit- 
ter, not unlike that of sparrows with 
us, but more serene, or with a softer 
sound. I am told that it is the little 
lizards, which are here found in such 
abundance, and which have the gift 
of voice." 


Delightful trade winds keep Cuba 
cool and delightful when people are 
sweltering in the north. 

Some of Cuba's scenery is admitted 
by landscape painters to have no su- 
perior of its kind. 




Cost $14,000,000— Was Bulit by the 
Spaniards as Defense Againt the 
English — Rich In History. 

Costing fourteen millions of dollars 
and rising a sheer one hundred feet 
from the harbor's edge Cabanas Fort- 
ress excites the curiosity ot the visi- 
tor as he enters Havana from the sea. 

To the English was due the building 
ot Morro Castle and the same can be 
said of Cabanas, because the capture 
of the former fortress by the British 
convinced the Spaniards of the neces- 
sity of building a still stronger de- 
tense to aid Morro, if another-attempt 
was made upon Havana. The work 
was begun during the reign of Carlos 
III, in the year 1763, and requirpd 
eleven years to build. It is told of 
this fort that when the Spanish king 
was informed of its cost, he shaded 
his eyes with his hand and gazed in- 
tently to the west explaining to his 
courtiers that the walls of Cabafias 
must be so high as to be visible across 
the sea. 

Though not nearly as strong a fort- 
ress as Morro and absolutely useless 
today for purposes of defense, Ca- 
banas is second only to the other in 
interest to the visitor in Havana. 

Crossing the harbor in one of the 
small boats from Caballeria wharf and 
•climbing a very steep covered walk 
one may enter by what is known as 
the "Laurel Ditch," so called because 
of beautiful laurel trees growing 
there. This place is looked upon with 
"horror by the native Cubans because 
it was here that relatives and com- 
panions in arms met their death in 
great numbers, when condemned by 
Spanish court-martials to be shot. 
When a Cuban patriot entered the 
confines of this fortress he was lost, 
as a rule, entirely to his friends 
and relatives. Only occasionally, and 
then only by means of heavy bribes, 
did one learn the fate of loved ones 
who climbed those steps to enter the 
vast confines of Cabanas. A man 
would be marched by the Spanish 
soldiers up the hill and henceforth 
that man was seldom heard of again. 

On the other hand the prisoner may 
' have been sentenced to be confined 
within one of the dark dungeons or 
rto be deported to Spanish penal col- 

onies in Africa, in which case, if he 
was able to withstand the ravages of 
disease, he might, after many years, 
be seen again by his family and 
friends and his appearance was often 
times the only intimation had by them 
that he had not met his fate at the 
hands of the firing squad years be- 
fore. Few records were kept by the 
commander of Cabanas of the prison- 
ers entering and leaving there. There 
were too many for such records to be 
kept with much detail and the Cuban 
patriot was looked upon as a traitor 
unworthy of much trouble once he 
was caught. Records of supposed 
traitors, however, were kept carefully 
up to the time of capture so that 
their conviction when caught would 
be swift and sure. 

The impression of the bullets after 
they had torn their cruel way through 
bodies of Cuban patriots is still to 
be seen in a deep line eight-five feet 
long, and for some time after the 
evacuation of the Spaniards souvenir 
hunters, with little search, could find 
flattened bullets once reddened by 
blood shed for freedom's cause. 

Hundreds of political prisoners were 
killed in this ditch. They marched 
sometimes singly and sometimes in 
numbers, and lined up in front of the 
"dead line," were made to kneel fac- 
ing it, while they waited for the ser- 
geant of the firing squad to give the 
word for hurling toward them their 
leaden messengers of death. In mem- 
ory of those who suffered martyrdom 
for freedom's cause at this place, the 
Cuban people have by popular sub- 
scription erected a handsome bronze 
memorial representing an angel re- 
ceiving the soul of the dying patriot. 

The plan of Cabanas reminds one 
of a Chinese puzzle. Legend has it 
that the architect had his eyes put 
out and afterwards killed so that the 
secret of the fortress might never be 
known. Certain It is, frequent visits 
will hardly be sufficient to prevent 
one becoming lost In its labyrinth of 
moats, walls, twistings and turnings, 
ascents and descents, covered and un- 
covered ways, barracks, prisons, dun- 
geons, drill grounds, officers' quarters, 
parapets and other things all in be- 
wildering confusion. It is a succes- 
sion of fortification after fortification, 
in apparently endless extent, the ob- 
ject being that when the defenders 
were driven from one position they 


n dug nearby. Lopez was later 
ght and publicly garroted at the 
t of the Prado. He was a Vene- 
lan by birth, but had been a gen- 
1 in the Spanish army. His sym- 
hies, however, were with the Cu- 
s in their struggle for liberty and 
1849, after having instigated an 
uccessful revolution against the 
iniards, he fled to the United States 
3re he became an active conspira- 
in the revolutionary junta in New 

.side from the fourteen millions of 
lars required to build Cabanas, 
re is a debt charged against her 
ount which has resulted in the ex- 
diture of sums far more vast and 


the loss of lives she was intended to 
defend. To her is charged the Im- 
portation of yellow fever to Cuba, 
through slaves brought from Vera 
Cruz to work upon the structure. This 
disease has been the greatest en- 
emy with which the Spaniard has had 
to contend in Cuba. Up to the coming 
of American methods ot sanitation at 
the end of the Hispano-American 
war, when the scourge was absolute- 
ly eradicated, thousands of subjects 
of Spain succumbed yearly to its 
deadly effects. Not only did Cuba 
suffer from the ravages of yellow 
fever imported to build Cabanas, but 
the United States and Europe were 
scourged for 150 years. 

could always fall back upon another 
equally as strong. 

Despite the millions spent upon this 
fortress by Spain the expediture was 
useless, for never has it been put to 
the test of war. It has always been 
used by the Spaniards as barracks 
tor their troops and as a prison for 
political offenders. It is now used by 
the Cuban government as the head- 
quarters for artillery and in the placs 
of the Spaniard who ruled his bloody 
way within those walls, are now to 
be heard the tones of command from 
voices of relatives of those who only 
a few years ago knelt before the 
fateful "dead line." 

The view from the ramparts ot 
Cabanas is very beautiful, taking ifi 
as it does, a comprehensive panorama 
of the harbor, the city of Havana a.nh 
the hills beyond. Upon the parapets 
are to be found interesting relics in 
the shape of bronze cannon, elabor- 
ately ornamented and each bearing 
the date of some Spanish sovereign 
These guns are useless today except 
for the firing of official salutes. For 
this purpose are they used. When a 
foreign warship enters Havana harbor 
these old relics are loaded with, blank 
charges and boom their salutes quite 
as loudly and effectively as the guna 
of- the latest model aboard the vis- \ 
iting ship. 

Rising from the parapet is to be 
seen a marble shaft erected in honor 
of the valor and loyalty of the gar- 
rison in repulsing the expedition of 
Narciso Lopez and the American, 
Colonel Crittenden, at Las Pazas in 
1851. Colonel W. L. Crittenden, a 
West Point graduate and a native of 
Kentucky, was persuaded by Lopez to 
join an expedition to Cuba for the 
purpose of attempting to free the Cu- 
bans from the hateful Spanish yoke. 
The expedition landed near Bahia 
Honda, about thirty-five miles from 
Havana. The Spanish captain general 
sent a large force from the garrison 
at Cabanas to meet Lopez and Crit- 
tenden, and the latter were overcome 
by numbers and defeated. Lopez ob- 
tained temporary safety by flight, but 
Crittenden and fifty of his men were 
captured and confined in a little fort 
called Atares across the harbor from 
Cabanas. A little later these fifty- 
one Americans were lined up and shot 
down by Spanish soldiery and their 
bodies thrown into a ditch which had 


















Is Havana's Chief Recreation Ground 
Where the People Gather 
>n Large Numbers. 

Faaned by the cool sea breeze as it 
sweeps up the Prado, shaded by the 
beautifully trimmed laurel trees, dec- 
orated witb a wealth of flowers and 
foliage plants of every color, with 
here and there inviting chairs and 
benches where the rich or the poor 
may stop to rest. Central Park is 
easily the most popular public insti- 
tution in Havana. Here it is, that the 
little children of families living with- 
in several blocks are taken by their 
nurses in the cool of the afternoon 
that they may escape for a little while 
their four walled cages, and get a 
little glimpse of God's blue sky and 
sunshine and breathe into their little 
lungs deeper draughts of his pure air. 
Every afternoon the little tots, dress- 
ed in their "Sunday best" may be 
seen In the care of their nurses play- 
ing games like "Ring Around the 
Rosy," "King William," and other 
childish sports. To these little ones, 
Is indeed the park a great institution 
and they live from day to day to en- 
Joy it. 

No less popular is the park to the 
older element. Every night the peo- 
ple for miles come to enjoy the prom- 
enades or to sit and watch others, 
seeing and being seen in turn, bow- 
ing here and there as they recogni/e 
their friends. To the poor, who can 
not afford to pay, are provided 
benches, but to those who prefer to 
be a little more exclusive, a charge 
of five cents Spanish silver will pro- 
vide a seat, anywhere you can find 
one vacant, for a whole evening. The 
crowd is ^s democratic as any to be 
seen anywhere. On concert nightr! 
ladies of highest social eminence may 
be seen, promenading up and down, 
with costly dresses of the latest style, 
while just before, or just behind, may 
be a less fortunate sister, as far as 
world's goods go, in a plain calico 
dress, but enjoying herself fully as 

Nights on which there are con- 
certs by either the Municipal or Mil- 
ttvy band are the mf«t popular, ana 
the park presents a gay spectacle. 
Electric lights make the park as light 

as day. Men less fortunate than 
those with families or friends to pass 
the time, may be seen here and there 
enjoying the evening papers while 
others are interested deeply in a book, 
fully as comfortable, if not more so, 
than if at home in easy chairs. 

The band concert is one of which 
any city or country might well be 
proud. Professor Tomas of the mu- 
nicipal Band, took second honors at 
the Buffalo Exposition, and was high- 
ly complimented by Phillip Sousa, 
against whom he played. He is him- 
self a composer of high merit. A 
typical program of one of his concerts 
is herewith given. 

1. Paso doble "Oportunidad," 


2. Fantasia "L'Asedio de Ar- 
bem" Verdi 

3. "Polonesa" Chopin 

4. Seleccion de "Lohengrin" 


5. Poema Sinfonico "Phaeton," 

Saint Saen'! 

6. Two Step "Bedelia" .... Schwartz 

7. Danzon "Alquizar" . . . . Cisneros 

El Director, G. M. Tomas. 
No less popular are the concerts 
given by the Military Band, an or- 
ganization belonging to the Cuban 
army. This band is also under the 
guidance of an able master in the 
person of Professor Enrique Varona, 
who is a composer of rare ability. 
Some of his marches are remindful of 
the stirring qualities of the great 

During Spanish timesi the soldiers 
were everywhere in the Park, but 
now one sees only an occasional po- 
liceman who may be there for enjoy- 
ment as much as anything else. 
There seems to be no need for his 
services as every one is happy and 
the people good naturedly jostle each 
other when the crowd is at its height. 
Seldom does any one lose his temper. 
All have their "society manners" with 

Surrounding the Park on every 
hand and adding to its bright gaity 
by their myriad lights are the best 
theaters and many of the best res- 
taurants and cafes of the city. If one 
becomes thirsty or desires an ice he 
is welcomed in a dozen places across 
the street where delicious refresh- 
ments are served. On the west are 
to be seen the National Theater, only 
a few years ago the third larges* 

opera house in the world, the Grand 
Inglaterra Hotel with its inviting cafe, 
the exclusive Cosmopolita Restaurant 
and the Telegrafo Hotel, cafe and ics 
cream parlors. On the south is the 
Payret Theater with the Hotel Pa- 
saje just beyond. On the east is the 
Albisu Theater, the Spanish Club, 
Centro Asturiano, the Polyteama 
Opera House, the Polyteama Vaude- 
ville, the Polyteama Restaurant and 
the Salon H. On the north are to be 
found the two popular cafes and res- 
taurants. Central and Aleman, and 
last, but not least, the Hotel Plaza. 
All of these establishments are such 
a part of Central Park that they 
share its fame. 

In the center of Central Park and 
upon a raised pedestal is the starue 
of Marti. Marti is sometimes called 
the George Washington of Cuba, but 
he is generally known as the Apostle 
He is the figure standing out most 
prominently throughout Cuba's last 
great battle for freedom. His was 
the guiding mind for years, and he 
was well and favorably known in the 
United States, where his sterling 
worth was recognized, and where, 
through him, much sympathy was 
created for the Cuban cause that 
might otherwise not have been so 
strong. This statue is of additional 
interest because it was sculptured by 
a distinguished Cuban, J. Vilaeta de 
Saavedra. Jose Marti was bom in 
Havana in 1853 and was killed in bat- 
tle in 1895. The symbolic meaning 
of the monument is best described by 
the sculptor himself in the following 

"The figure represents the Apostle 
Marti in the act of addressing the Cu- 
ban people just after he has onc» 
more given to the winds the single- 
starred banner of freedom which was 
furled at Zanjon. Inspired by him, 
the Cubans in 1895 threw themselves 
into the second war of independence. 
In high relief around the pedestal 1 
have symbolized their action; there 
are sculptured nineteen figures, which 
show this nation moving forward, men, 
young and old, armed and unarmed; 
women and children, all eager, strain- 
ing towards the goal ahead, which is. 
Independence. And overshadowinug 
them witii her great white wing.) i.s 
Victory be.iring the Palm of PedJe" 

The "Pearl of the Antilles"— Cuba. 


IVIadruga Is Pleasant for Tourists to 
Visit — Famous for Sulphur Baths. 

A very charming excursion may 
be made to the town of Madruga, 
which can be reached in a few hours' 
ride from Havana. It is a typical 
Cuban village of about two thousand 
inhabitants, nestling among a pleas, 
ant group of hills, and has been fam- 
ous for generations in Cuba for valu- 
able sulphur and iron springs which 
abound there. There are large bath, 
ing establishments in this town, so 
that the healing waters may be ad- 
vantageously enjoyed by the visitors. 

The drinking water, also, known as 
"Copey," enjoys equal fame, and is 
highly recommended for disorders of 
the digestive organs. There is no 
doubt that on account of its excel- 
lent location and its close proximity 
to Havana, Madruga is a town with 
a great future before it. Already, 
very desirable hotel accommodations 
may be had there the year round, 
and, as in the case of Matanzas, it 
is so located with respect to the ex- 
cellent highway system of Cuba that 
several delightful automobile excur- 
sions may be enjoyed. 


Reaping and sowing are continu- 
ous in Cuba. 






Finest Leaf Is Produced Along Banks 
of Coyaguateje River, 180 Miles 
from Havana. 

The moment Spain's demand was 
for the best tobacco in Cuba, it de- 
veloped that the finest leaf was that 
which had been furnished in small 
lots by certain isolated growers along 
the banks of the Cuyaguateje river, 
60 leagues west of Havana or further, 
in lonely, neglected, unpopulated 
country, nominally a part of Havana's 
jurisdiction, but still in reality with- 
out government at all. 

Governor de la Torre resolved to 
found a town out there, in t^e far 
west, and to name a lieutenant gov- 
ernor to reside In it, in representation 
of his authority. His object was to 
encourage the cultivation of the ex- 
quisite tobacco of Vuelta Abajo 
("down country," as the west was in- 
definitely designated), by placing wes- 
tern vegueros in touch with the civil 
and social life of the rest of Cuba, 
by protecting them from pirates, and 
also from the extortions of district 
captains — petty olficials — who were 
the more daring and arbitrary the 
further their commands lay from the 
reach of central authority. 

Legalization of Guane. 

In 1774, Captain Fernandez, first 
governor of the newly created lieuten- 
ancy (it was called Nueva Pilipina), 
went into the west to establish his 
authority over the country from the 
Palacios river to Cape San Antonio. 
He discovered that he had no need 
to found a new town — one almost two 
hundred years old already existed 
within his jurisdiction; he had mere- 
ly to legalize it to provide himself 
with a capital, and this he proceeded 
to do at once. The town was Guane. 

Guane seems to have been, in those 
days, of an ambulatory disposition; its 
first location was Hato Guane, 12 
miles from its present site; thence It 
moved into the Acosta Hills, from 
where it traveled to Sansuena, and 
next to Barrancas, finally settling 
down to stay atop a ridge of high 
land beside the Cuyaguateje river. 

Originally, persons In 50 leagues 
around brought their children for bap- 
tism to Its church; there S.'re entries 
dated 1602 and these are not the first 
made, evidently. Gradually this great 

jurisdiction (both civil and religious) 
was subdivided, and the parishes of 
Mantau, Baja San Juan y Martinez, 
and Pinar del Rio itself, acquired 
distinct identities. 

Supremacy of Far West. 
Just as it was tobacco which first 
brought organized government into 
the Vuelta Abajo, with Lieutenant 
Governor Fernandez in 1774, so it was 
tobacco in the Cabezas de Horacio dis- 
trict which caused the development of 
Mantua (founded about 1716) ; it was 
the fact that their lands produced the 
best tobacco of all which changed the 
cattle ranches of San Juan and Marti- 
nez and San Luis into the best known 
plantations under cultivation today; 
and to the volume of tobacco business 
transacted there the city of Pinar del 
Rio (made the capital of Nueva Fili- 
pina in 1810) owes its importance, 

From the moment in 1774, that a 
distinction among good tobaccos was 
drawn in favor of the best, the rise 
of Vuelta Abajo as a center of tobacco 
production was quick. The far west 
immediately attained a supremacy 
which has never since been question- 
ed. Tobacco culture throughout the 
rest of the island has regulated itself 
with reference to business there. In 
districts where once it prevailed, to- 
bacco has been abandoned (i. e., in the 
immediate neighborhood of Havana) ; 
in others where it has not heretofore 
been attempted, it is developing (i. e., 
in the center and east of the island, 
at Cabaiguan and along the Cauto). 
In Vuelta Abajo, however, production 
has been uninterrupted (save during 
one short period in war times, 1895-8) 
from unchroniciled years, prior to 
1600, to date. 

"Just Growed." 

The prosperity of tobacco culture 
has always been the prosperity of the 
west; and the prosperity of the west 
is, in notable degree that of all Cuba, 
since tobacco is the country's second 
largest export. 

History of the tobacco business and 
that of Pinar del Rio province are 
one — and hard to trace In detail. 
"Happy," they say, "is the country 
which has no history." The remark 
is applicable to Pinar del Rio; that 
province, as it is today — rich, modem, 
and a factor In the world's commer- 
cial affairs — "just growed," in unob^ 
trusive fashion, and unobserved, be- 

cause events more spectacular than 
the cultivation of tobacco, but not as 
profitable, were holding general atten- 
tion elsewhere. When the smoke fi- 
nally cleared away it appeared that 
the five other provinces of Cuba were 
in possession of bloody annals, and of 
little else. Pinar del Rio, despite pa- 
triotic protests to the contrary, is 
lacking by comparison in those mar-' 
tial records mistakenly accepted in 
subtropical America as constituting 
the magna pars of history. In recom- 
pense she has intensely cultivated 
areas, a master grip on the world's 
tobacco market, and a reputation for 
tranquility calculated to assist toward 
even greater prosperity than that at 
present enjoyed. 

Also it is worth remarking that out- 
side Cuba which recognizes them as 
names of battles here considered fa- 
mous, the words Dos Rios, Las Gua- 
simas, Palo Seoo and Wajay, have no 
definite signification; on the contrary, 
there is not a city on the globe to 
whose smokers the name Vuelta 
Abajo does not mean tobacco — and 
the best of it to be procured. 

In the course of the centuries Vuelta 
Abajo has developed a tobacco plant 
peculiarly its own. Formerly this va- 
riety predominated in the vegas of the 
west. Transplanted to other countries, 
even to other sections of the island, 
it lost the distinguishing qualities de- 
veloped solely in Vuelta Abajo. Dur- 
ing, the wars which swept Cuba this 
genuine Cuban tobacco was largely 
destroyed; in the mountain fastnesses 
of the far west, however, there were 
seedbeds and vegas which were undis- 
turbed and these, when peace was re- 
stored, replanted Vuelta Abajo. At 
the same time, certain foreign varie- 
ties of tobacco — namely, Mexican 
plants and hybrids from the United 
States — were introduced there, at once 
attaining superior qualities, not 
equalled even in those places where 
they were indigenuos. 

These circumstances prove conclus- 
ively the excellence of the Vuelta 
Abajo tobacco is derived from pecu- 
liar conditions of soil and climate pre- 
vailing just within that small region 
and nowhere else. Thus has Nature 
protected Vuelta Abajo against suc- 
cessful rivalry. The quality of the 
tobacco grown there early recogniz- 
ed as the best there is, cannot be 


Is a Battery Just West of Havana 
Was Completed in the Year 

Santa Clara and Reina Batteries — 
Under the old order Havana was sur- 
rounded with defenses, the forts be- 
ing supplemented with batteries in 
every commanding position. One of 
the most important of these was the 
Bateria de Santa Clara, completed in 
1797, and named after the Count de 
Ricla, otherwise known as the Count 
of Santa Clara. It is the most west, 
erly of the city's defenses, being 
placed in the hill near the shore, one 

and one-half miles from the harbor 
mouth and commanding the sea ap- 
proach. It is reached by the Vedado 
cars. Not far from it is the old Mar- 
tello watch tower (Torreon de Vigia) 
at the San Lazaro inlet, where the 
Cuba- Key West cable lands. Near 
the inlet, between the car line and 
the water, formerly stood the bat. 
tery called La Reina, a stone work 
which commanded seaward and was 
intended to resist the advance of an 
enemy from Chorrera. It was de- 
molished in 1904. 

No where in the world are people 
so care free as in Cuba. The secret 
is the climate and the country. 






Ancient Fortress Was Captured by the 
English and Americans in 1762. 
Building Due to Francis Drake 

Morro Castle, the ancient fortress 
commanding the attention and admir- 
ation of every one entering Havana 
harbor, just as it stands out promi- 
nently from the mainland as one ap- 
proaches Havana from the sea, so is 
Its relation in history to the city it 
was built to defend. Since the year 
1585, when the need of a Morro was 
realized, has the history of this city 
been inseparately woven about this 
stronghold. No place is richer in his- 
toric interest to the visitor to Havana. 

To the English is due the building 
of Morro Castle, although they had 
nothing more to do with it than to 
show the Spanish rulers the necessity 
for such a defense. It is a coinci- 
dence that England, many years later, 
lost many of her sons to capture the 
very place which her former acts had 
caused to be built. 

The necessity of a Morro Castle 
was first realized by King Phillip 11. 
It was due to a visit to Havana in 
1585 by Francis Drake. This great 
English corsair was on his way home 
after having sacked and plundered 
Carthagena and stopped here on his 
way to renew his supplies of water 
and provisions. His coffers were al- 
ready full of spoils from former con- 
quests and he and men were anxious 
to return to their flesh pots at home. 
For this reason he took nothing here 
beyond a supply of turtles' eggs and 
hundreds of live turtles. These were 
killed and dried and added much to 
change the monotony of the bill of 
fare on board his ships. 

The Spaniards feared Francis Drake 
almost as much as they hated him, 
and while his visit to Havana did not 
result in harm, it was realized that, 
with this city's constantly growing 
wealth and importance, it would soon 
become a prize, attractive not only to 
Buch sea rovers as Drake, but also 
as a jewel which any king might some 
time desire to add to his crown. 
Then it was that King Phillip ordered 
the construction of an impregnable 
fortress to protect Havana. 

The plans were drawn by an en- 
gineer named Don Juan Bautista An- 
toneli and the labor was done by con- 

victs and slaves. It was a tremen- 
dous undertaking because the deep 
moats had to be cut from the solid 
coral rock. Most of the fortress is 
built on this solid formation and a 
large part of the structure is actually 
hewn out of the rock. It has the ap- 
pearance of an immense natural for- 
mation in which the hand of man as- 
sisted in its outline. It required 
twelve years to build it. Practically 
impregnable in its day, but of little 
use in this age of thirteen-inch guns, 
this antique stronghold still impresses 
one with its great strength. 

To visit Morro Castle, one takes one 
of the small harbor boats to the Morro 
landing. Following an old shaded 
walk, lined on each side by thousands 
of stone ale bottle, emptied in days 
long past by Spanish officers in their 
efforts to drive off homesickness for 
those left in Old Spain, the visitor, 
after a steep climb, comes to the an- 
cient drawbridge. Here, as in days 
of yore, a sentinel stops you, exam- 
ines your pass, and if it is right, al- 
lows you to enter. 

Like most Spanish fortresses, Morro 
is not a place to strike cheer to one's 
heart. On the contrary one feels a 
depression while within its gloomy 
walls and tales by your guide of the 
human suffering endured therein, in 
days not so very long ago, and the 
consciousness of horrible stories 
which could be told by those silent 
stones if they could but speak, causes 
the average visitor to rather hurry 
through the long dark corridors and 
satisfy himself with but a glance with- 
in the dark recesses of the dungeons, 
where Cuban patriots ate out their 
hearts while awaiting the pleasure of 
their Spanish masters. As one is 
conducted to the seaward side and 
catches a glimpse of the beautiful, 
deep blue waters, he feels relief 
until shown an innocent looking chute 
leading down to the depths, and is 
told, while built for the dumping of 
I refuse, political prisoners were often 
cast alive into the waters below. Per- 
haps the visitor may think that, hav- 
ing been thrown into the water alive, 
some prisoners may have, like the 
hero of Alexander Dumas in his Count 
of Monte Cristo, freed himself of his 
bonds and swimming to the shore, es- 
caped into the world once more. A 
careful glance into these waters on 
clear days will disabuse one of that 

impression, because at the bottom is 
'"The Shark's Nest," and there can 
always be seen from one to several 
of the cruel mouthed, hungry hyenas 
of the deep, watching you with wary 
eye as if hoping that you, too, might 
be thrown over to feed their insatia- 
ble appetites. 

Towering above Morro is the great 
lighthouse, built in 1844 by the then 
Governor General O'Donnell. Poster- 
ity is not destined to forget this Irish 
name for it is blazoned in large letters 
which will only perish when the im- 
posing pile of stone is no more. Any 
one whose avoirdupois is not too 
plentiful, should climb the dark wind- 
ing stairs of the lighthouse to the 
summit, because from it will be un- 
folded a panorama of Havana that will 
more than repay the effort. 

The guns on Morro are neither of 
great age nor modern. They are the 
best of any fortification in Cuba. 
Twelve of the cannon destined to 
guard the channel of the harbor are 
known as "The Twelve Apostles," 
and each bears its apostolic name. 

The capture of Morro Castle by the 
English is one of the most interesting 
portions of its history. On June 6, 
1762, the captain general of Havana 
was notified that an English fleet of 
two hundred Bails had been sighted 
off coast of Cojimar, only six miles 
from Havana. Rumors of the coming 
of this fleet had reached the captain 
general, but he was incredulous, and 
as a result, was entirely unprepared 
for the emergency. The British fleet 
was under command of Admiral Sir 
George Peacock, and was taking ad- 
vantage of the war between England, 
France and Spain to attempt the cap- 
ture of Havana, already become one 
of the richest prizes in the New World 
and the key to all Spanish-American 

The Spanish captain general, on 
learning the enemy was at hand, im- 
mediately caused the alarm to be 
sounded and began to assemble every 
available fighting man. With the 
troops in the different garrisons and 
the mustering of every citizen able to 
carry a gun, he succeeded in gather- 
ing a force of 27,610 men. The Brit- 
ish had 14,041 men recruited in Eng- 
land, Jamaica and the colonies of 
North America, now part of the Unit- 
ed States. 

The Spaniards sent a force to pre- 

vent the landing of the British at Co- 
jimar, but the fort there"^ll and the 
troops, defeated, retired to Havana. 
Cabanas heights were captured soon 
afterward by assault and the enemy 
began erecting batteries on the hill 
so as to concentrate a murderous fire 
upon Morro. This work was complet- 
ed by the end of June and the guns 
of the two opened fire on each other. 
The part of Morro just opposite to 
Cabanas was soon reduced to ruins, 
but still the brave commander. Cap- 
tain Velasco, refused to give up. Fi- 
nally the English commander, Lord 
Albermarle, mined under the founda- 
tions of the fort and when he was 
ready to blow it up, sent word to 

Captain Velasco, telling him the facts 
and advising him to surrender as re- 
sistance was no longer possible. The 
brave Spaniard replied that he would 
fight to the last, and he did. The 
mine was fired the next day and caus- 
ed great destruction. The English 
charged in over the fallen walls, but 
were met by Captain Velasco, who 
with his men, fought like Spartans 
until the brave captain fell, sword in 
hand. His second in command. Mar- 
ques Gonzalez, when his chief fell, 
took the authority and fought just as 
desperately until he was killed. Then 
the garrison, overcome by mere force 
of numbers with both commanders 
dead, could only surrender. 






Florida Tourists' Logical Point of De- 
parture for Cuba — Five Days 
From New York and Return. 

(By L. D.) 

The enterprise of Tlie Havana Post 
in getting out its annual Tourist Edi- 
tion is indicative of the push and en- 
ergy of the times in Havana; as it is 
intended as a guide and directory for 
Cuba to be largely distributed 
throughout the United States and 
Canada, its issue would hardly be 
complete v^'ithout at least a brief ar- 
ticle on "How to Reach Havana." 

This, indeed, is a progressive age, 
and nothing more clearly marks it 
than the methods of modern travel. 
Strange to say, our methods of travel 
have outstripped the knowledge of the 
traveler in many instances; as an ex- 
ample, a short time since while the 
writer of this article was traveling 
by train through one of the Eastern 
States he heard two men in the Pull- 
man smoker discussing various for- 
eign countries, and was surprised at 
hearing one of them say he had al- 
ways wanted to visit Cuba, but that 
one might just as well take a trip to 
Europe, as Cuba was so inaccessible 
and it took so much time. They were 
exceedingly surprised when I told 
them that business men from New 
York called to Cuba on business that 
required haste in travel could leave 
New York during the winter season, 
when the justly celebrated New York 
and Florida trains were in service, 
make the round trip, have a day in 
Havana, and be back in New York in 
five days — not only that but travel in 
every comfort while doing it. 

The Florida Special trains are an 
education in themselves — electric- 
lighted, solid vestibule steel Pullmans, 
library, barber shop, dining cars, elec- 
tric fans, etc. These trains, the aris- 
tocrats of the rail sweep North and 
South, with the regularity of -a clock, 
landing their passengers at either 
Knights Key on the East Coast or at 
Port Tampa on the West Coast of 
Florida; then it is but to step on 
board of one of the fast mail ships of 
the Peninsular an-l Occidental Steam- 
ship Company's fleet, and a short and 
delightful sea voyage, eight hours on 
•.he sea by way of Knights Key, and 

about eighteen by way of Port Tam- 
pa, including a stop of a couple of 
hours at Key West, where one can 
spend the time profitably as well as 
pleasantly in inspecting Uncle Sam's 
fortifications which are of such for- 
midable proportions as to have earn- 
ed for this island the sobriquet of the 
"Gibraltar of America" — but, there 
are many other attractions aside from 
the troops, forts, ships-of-war. etc. — 
cigar factories, sponge fisheries, excel- 

pass through Jacksonville — the gate- 
way to Florida — and speeding south 
be landed at shipside without change 
of cars. For those desiring to tarry 
awhile liberal stopover privileges are 
allowed on all tourist tickets. Surely 
there is temptation enough, with the 
trains passing through such towns as 
Sanford, Orlando, Winter Park and 
DeLand and the West Coast; or if 
your tickets reads via the East Coast 
your route will take you through the 

men's paradise. All these things you 
may see and do coming South, or if 
you prefer take them in after your 
visit to Cuba, as tickets on sale all 
over the United States and Canada, 
known as Winter Tourist tickets, 
have a six months' return limit and 
permit stop-overs at all points in 

It is important that the tourist con- 
templating a trip to Florida should 
know that for a very small additional 

electric lights, automobiles, etc., and 
ancient in that it's picturesque old 
fortifications, churches, walls, etc., are 
side by side with the wonders of mod- 
em times. 

Let no one think, however, that be- 
cause they are in a foreign land they 
are out of touch with things at home 
— The Post and other up-to-date 
newspapers will disabuse your mind 
at once, from their -Columns you can 
glean the news of the world as given 
out by the Associated PreSo. and you 
can cable New York and have an an- 
swer in less than half an hour. 

When your visit has ended you go 
to the office of the Peninsular and 
Occidental Steamship Company, and 
in addition to securing your state- 
room on shipboard, you can also se- 
cure your Pullman reservation. Pull- 
man tickets, have your baggage 
chocked through to destination and 
transferred from your hotel. Arrange- 
ments have been made to save pas- 
sengers, via this Line, the necessity 
of having their baggage inspected 
upon landing in the United States, as 
inspectors at Havana do that ere pas- 
sengers leave; so that on landing once 
again on United States soil you pass 
on without hindrance. 



Municipal and Artillery Bands Render 
Program in Park and 
at IVIalecon. 

lent fishing, boating and bathing, and 
most interesting of all the line of 
steel rails leading north over the blue 
waters of the ocean, that marks the 
coming of the new railroad, the ex- 
tension of the celebrated East Coast 
Railway, which is to be completed and 
in operation in January, 1912. 

As it is only ninety knots from Key 
West to Havana, this means that 
leaving practically any of the large 
cities of the East or West, one may 

garden spot of the world — through 
quaintly interesting old Augustine, 
Rockledge, Palm Beach and Miami, 
and south of that to the delightful 
fishing camp at Long Key. If you 
happen to be fond of good fishing this 
will surely tempt you to stop off, for 
here all arrangements have been 
made for your coming — boats, tackle, 
bait, everything to tempt the angler, 
and in addition a fine camp, delightful 
cuisine makes Long Key the fisher- 

sum he may purchase his tickets 
through to Havana and return; and 
surely all who come to Florida should 

j make the trip to Cuba. 

I Other articles in this editon of The 
Post will amply describe Cuba as a 
tourist point in these days; so will 
merely say that having come to an- 
chor in Havana's beautiful harbor, 
you have before you a city at once 
modern and ancient — modern in it's 
splendid hotels, electric car service. 

Havana has several excellent l>ands. 
The Municipal band proudly retains 
first place, under the able leadership 
of Director Tomas. It has won recog- 
nition at home and abroad. The 
Cuartel General band comes second. 
Both these bands play to the public 
on Sunday afternoons and evenings 
and on certain evenings during the 

There is a baurfstand at Malecon 
and another arranged round the Mar^ 
ti statue in Central Park. When the 
bands play the people appear in 
crowds and walk round and round, 
listening to the music. There are 
chairs at Malecon and in the park. 
They are free during the day until 
5 o'clock after which a charge of five 
cents Spanish money, is made. A 
ticket bought in either park is good 
in the other. The benches are free 
at all times. 





Condensed Statement of Points c/f 
Principal Interest in and Near 
the City. 

The following is a condensed list 
to points of interest in and around 
the city. 

Albear Statue-, erected as a memo- 
rial to the architect planning Hava- 
na's waterworks, Albear Park, one 
block from Central Park, between 
O'Reilly and Obispo streets. 

American Club.— No. 83 Prado. 

Atares Fort. — Place where Colonel 
Crittendon and his thirty Kentuckians 
were shot. Tak« Jesus del Monte 
cars to Cristina and then walk. 

Botanical Gardens.— On Paseo Car- 
los III. Take Principe cars to en- 

Caballeria Wharf.— Foot of O'Reilly 

Cabaiias Fort. — Take boat from Ca- 
bellsria wharf. Fare ten cents. 

Morro Castle can also be visited in 

Carcel. — Jail formerly used as state 
prison. Foot of Prado. 

Cathedral. — Where Columbus was 
once buried. Empedrado and San Ig- 
nacio streets. 

Cervantes Statue. — San Juan de 
Dios Park. All cars reading San Juan 
de Dios pass by the park. 

Churches.— Roman Catholic Cathed- 
ral, Empedrado and San Ignacio. Be- 
len, Compostela and Luz streets. La 
Merced, Cuba and Merced streets. 
San Agustin, Cuba and Amargura 
streets. Santa Catalina, O'Reilly 
street. Santo Domingo, O'Reilly and 
Mercaderes streets. Cristo (Ameri- 
can; Augustinian Fathers), Villegas 
and Amargura streets. 

Protestant Denominations. — (Ser- 
vioes. in English). — Holy Trinity Ca- 
thedral, Neptuno and Aguila; W. L. 
Piatt, secretary, 105 Prado. Method- 
ist. 10 Virtudes street. Presbyterian 
church, Salud 40. Baptist Temple, 
corner Dragones and Zulueta. 

Congress. — Senate Building on 
O'Reilly street, fronting Plaza de 
Armas. House of Representatives Is 
one half block from Machina wharf. 

Cristobal Colon Cemetery. — Reach- 
ed by the Universidad-Aduana line of 
cars, fare 5 cents. 

Custom Houa/9 (Aduana). — Oticios 
street, foot of Teniente Rey. 

Ferries leave Luz wharf for Regla 
and for :the Regla station of the 
United Railways. Cuban Railroad, 
Havana Central. Fare, 5 cents. 

Mr. Foster's Information Office. — 
Corner Prado and Central Park. 

La Fuerza Fort.— The first fortifi- 
cation built for the defense of Ha- 
vana. Near foot of O'Reilly and oppo- 
site Plaza de Armas Park. 

Libraries. — National, in Maestranza 
building, Cuba and Chacon streets. 

vana Electric street cars lines to Ve- 
dado. Fare is ten cents currency. 

Malecon. — Havana's famous drive 
and promenade. One of ti:e most 
beautiful in the world. At fcot of 

Markets. — Monserrate street, two 
blocks from Central Park, towards 

Matanzas. — Excursions by the Unit- 
ed Railways of Havana. 

Morro Castle. — Take small boat 

from Concha station or Arsenal sta- 
tion, or via Vedado street car lines to 

Plaza de Armas. — This is the little 
park in front of the Presidential Pal- 
ace and is located at the foot of 
O'Reilly and Obispo streets. 

Park Seats. — The chair seats in 
Central Park and at the Malecon are 
free during the day. From five o'clock 
in the afternoon until ten at night 
there is a charge of five cents Span- 


Two Irish Names Playing a Promi- 
. nent Part in Havana's 

History. j 


Library of the Economic Society, Dra- 
gones No. 62. 

Guanabacoa. — Formerly the summer 
residence of Spanish officials. Ferry 
from Luz wharf to Regla, thience by 
electric car. 

Luz Wharf. — Ferry to Regla, is at 
the foot of Luz street. It is reached 
by all Muelle de Luz street cars. 

Marianao. — Suburb west of Ha- 
vana, reached by rail from Concha 
station, or Arsenal station, or via Ha- 

from Caballeria wharf. Fare ten 
cents. Cabanas Fort can be visited 
in the same connection. 

Palace. — Residence of the president 
and official center of the Cuban gov- 
ernment. Entire block near foot of 
O'Reilly and Obispo streets. Oppo- 
site Plaza de Armas. 

Paula Hospital. — San Isldro street, 
between Cuba and Havana. 

La Playa. — Cuba's popular bathing 
beach. Trains every half hour either 

ish silver. A ticket bought in either 
of the two parks is good for vacant 
chair found in both places. The 
benches in both parks are always 

Police Headquarters. — Corner of 
Empedrado and Monserrate streets. . 

Regla. — Take Muelle Luz cars to 
Luz wharf then transfer to ferry. 

Temple of Columbus. — -Where mass 
was first said at founding ot Havana. 
B'oot of O'Reilly street. 

General O'Reilly, after whom 
O'Reilly street was named, and Gen- 
eral O'Donnell, whose name is asso- 
ciated with the Morro Lighthouse, 
and the O'Farrills and O'Lawlers, who 
were prominent in the history of Ha- 
vana, were descended from Irish- 
men who emigrated from Ireland to 
Spain after the battle of the Boyne in 
1690, and attained eminence in the 
Spanish service 

The O'Reilly, O'Farrill and O'Law- 
ler families were prominent among 
the wealthiest sugar planters of the 
island during the last century. In 
the year 1704, in return for his ser- 
vices as alguacil mayor (high con- 
stable). Count O'Reilly y de Buena 
Vista received by royal grant a mo- 
nopoly of carrying the carcasses of 
beef from Havana slaughter house to 
the butcher shops. The office of high 
constable long since ceased to exist, 
but the beef monopoly was handed 
down through the O'Reilly family and 
was enjoyed by them as a vested right 
until the year 1899, when it was ter- 
minated by General Brooke, then Mil- 
itary Governor of Havana. The pricj 
per carcass under the O'Reilly regime 
was fifty cents; when the monopoly 
was taken from them it was given t« 
the city, which performed the same 
service for frcm 25 to 30 cents, a 
saving o-i the 300 carcasses daily of 
from $75 to $90. 

When in 1784 France ceded Louis- 
iana to Spain, and Don Antonio Ulloa 
went from Havana to New Orleans tl 
take possession of the country for 
Their Catholic Majesties, the French 
inhabitants rebelled at Spanish domi- 
nation, and drove Ulloa back to Ha- 
vana; thereupon General Alexander 
O'Reilly organized a force here, sailed 
to New Orleans, and straightway 
made good the Spanish sovereignty 
over Louisiana. 

Of Governor Leopoldo O'Donnell, 
who was governor from 1843 to 1848, 
it is recorded that by an ingenuous 
system of personal revenue (in mod- 
ern phrase, "graft"), he acquired in 
his short term such immense wealth 
that when he went back to Spain the 
King himself was envious of him. 





Discovering the New World as he 
did, anything recalling or associated 
with Columbus is always of interest 
and the Havana Cathedral where the 
bones of the great discoverer rested, 
is a never neglected Mecca of visi- 
tors in Havana. 

The Cathedral's real name is Ca- 
thedral of the Virgin Mary of the Im- 
maculate Conception. It is located on 
the corner of San Ignacio and Bmpe- 
drado streets, and though it is only a 
little over two hundred years old, im- 
presses one with Its great antiquity. 
It Is of the Hispano -American type 
of architecture, with two towers and 
a dome and is built of Cuban lime- 
stone from which until the recent 
advent of cement and steel, the prin- 
cipal edifices of Havana have been 
built. The Jesuits built this Cathed- 
ral in the year 1704 on the site occu- 
pied by a former church. Two of its 
bells which still ring out their deep 
rich tones all hours of the day and 
night, were cast in 1664 and 1698, re- 

The visitor who would see the Ca- j 
thedral during hours that it is not 
open for services, is admitted through 
a gate to th« right into a triangular | 
courtyard. On one side is the ecclesi- 
astical court room, the walls of which 
are adorned with portraits of former 
bishops of the Island. Beyond are 
the the cloisters and the yards of the ; 
Theological Seminary of San Carlos. I 

If the visitor comes well recom- j 
mended, the good priest in charge of 
the Cathedral will take interest in i 
showing one through the mahogany ] 
chests in which are stored fortunes in | 
magnificent robes, trimmed in rare 
laces and gold and silvery embroid- 
ery, used in the various ceremonies 
of the church. No woman will call 
her visit to Havana in vain who has 
gained a peep at the treasures hidden 
in this room. 

On the walls are life-like paintings 
by some of the oldest and most fa- 
mous masters. Some are of almost 
incalcuable value. 

Prom the robing room a door leads 
to the high altar and chancel the in- 
terior walls of which are finished in 
dark marble.. The columns are ol 
highly polished mahogany and the 
choir stalls are of the same wood but 
magificently carved. The altar is ot 

Carrara marble. The baldachin con- 
tians a sculptured image of Our Lady 
of the Immaculate Conception. The 
floor is a mosaic of colored marble. 

The ceilings are all elaborately and 
beautifully painted. In the dome are 
likenesses of Moses and Prophets and 
Evangelists. On the walls, Abraham 
and Sarah to whom the promise is 
given: "Sarah thy wife shall bear 
one son," and Christ and the Woinan 
of Samaria. A small painting always 

sin. Above the altar of San Cristo- 
bal, St. Christopher, the patron saint 
of Havana, is a picture which repre- 
sents the giant-statured Christopher 
bearing on his shoulders through the 
flood the Christ Child, who holds the 
world in His hand. In an ante-cham- 
ber off from the altar is the chapel 
of Santa Maria de Loretto, a repro- 
duction of the shrine of Loretto in 
Italy. The legend is that when in the 
year 1295 the Santa Casa or Holy 

may be noted a slight discolorization 
in the wall. In this place in a small 
niche are supposed to have been plac- 
ed the bones of Columbus. The 
Great Discoverer, when he died brok- 
en hearted in Valladolid in 1508, stat- 
ed in his will that he wished to be 
transferred to Seville and later Spain 
obeyed the last wishes of the man 
who had added so many new coun- 
tries to her possessions and transfer- 
red his bones to Santo Domingo. 


greatly admired and repdted to be by 
Murillo, represents the Pope and the 
Cardinals celebrateing mass prepara- 
tory to the sailing of Columbus. The 
Madonna del Carmen, the Virgin and 
Child releasing souls from torment, a 
favorite subject in Spanish ecclesias- 
tical art. Maria de la Concepcion, 
the Immaculate Conception; the Vir- 
gin stands on a globe with foot rest- 
ing upon a serpent, typical of her 
triumph over a world fallen through 

House of Nazareth, the birthplace of 
the Virgin and the scene of the An- 
nunciation, was threatened with pro- 
fanation at the hands of the Saracens, 
buried on the island of Santo Do- 
mingo. He was first buried in Val- 
ladolid. Afterwards his remains wert 
it was borne by angels over land and 
sea and deposited at Loretto, which 
has ever since been one of the famous 
shrines of Christendom. 
To the left of the altar in a corner 

There they were placed in the Co- 
lumbus Cathedral until the island was 
taken by the French in 1795. The 
Spaniards did not want to see the re- 
mains of their great countryman pass 
under the control of an alien race and 
their removal was ordered to Cuba. 
The bones believed to have been those 
of Columbus were exhumed from the 
floor in front of the altar of the Santo 
Domingo church and brought to Ha- 
vana in the 'Spanish battleship Snn 

Lorenzo. They were received here 
with imposing ceremonies and placed 
in the niche of the chancel hereto- 
fore described. 

In the year 1898 when the Spaniards 
evacuated the Island of Cuba to the 
Americans, again was it against their 
will to leave these precious relics to 
the care of an alien race so they were 
taken back to Seville where they had 
been once before, and there they rest 
today. In the meanwhile Santo Do- 
mingo claims to have found other 
bones which have been "positively" 
identified as those of Columbus, and 
it is asserted that those brought to 
Havana were those of a son of the 
discoverer. An old priest who attend- 
ed the exhumation of the bones from 
the vault in the Havana Cathedral has 
assured The Post that among the 
bones was a little golden cross in- 
scribed in Latin as having been pre- 
sented to Columhus by Queen Isa- 
bela and this in his mind establishes 
the identity of the bones beyond a 
doubt as it will also in the minds of 



Aristocratic Residence Quarter Was 
Once Wilderness Feared by 
the Town. 

Street cars, with sign-boards read, 
ing either Vedado.San Juan de 
Dios in white and red or Vedado. 
Muelle de Luz in white and green, 
which pass Central Park, will convey 
the tourist into the aristocratic resi- 
dence district ot Havana, called "El 
Vedado," which means, translated, 
"Forbidden Ground." 

Now this whole vicinty is built up 
with villas, which are the summer 
homes of the wealthy, each set in its 
garden of flowers and foliage plants 
and shading evergreen trees. 

The Calzada, the boulevard follow, 
ed by conveyances driving out from 
the city, is one block to seaward of 
the car line, which follows Linea 
street. The visitor should alight, say 
at Second street, and walk over a 
block for the pleasure of seeing 
homes typical of the quarter. Near, 
by is Chorrera fort on its rocky islet. 



The lima is somewhat like the lime 
with the flavor ot the grape. 





Furnish Havana With One of the 
Purest Water Supplies in World. 
Comes from 400 Springs. 

Vento Springs,' the source of Ha- 
vana's water system, is one of the 
most interesting and picturesque lo- 
calities in Cuba. It is located nine 
miles south of Havana at a place call- 
ed Vento and daily automobile ex- 
cursions are taken there for the con- 
venience of tourists. 

The clearness and apparent purity 
of Havana's water never fails to 
cause the remark that it looks "just 
like spring water." That is what it 
should look like, for that is just what 
it is. The vitltor on being told this, 
will, as a rule, wear a rather incredi- 
ble smile, expressive of doubt that 
one spring can supply this city of 
over 300,000 inhabitants. The answer 
is that the supply is not from one 
spring, but from four hundred, all 
boiling up within a small circumfer- 
ence and imprisoned in a heavy wall 
of masonry down which are steps al- 
lowing one to approach to the very 
brink of the water. The water is 
very deep, but just as clear there as 
it Is in the crytal goblet when drawn 
from the hydrant. The daily supply 
from these springs is 40,000,000 gal- 
lons, and it is absolutely free from 
all organic matter. It is somewhat 
hard owing to the limestone in solu- 

Whether one is engineer or just an 
ordinary layman, with no knowledge 
of such things, the engineering work 
which imprisoned these springs and 
drew th«m to Havana, never ceases 
to be admired. Th© water is deliv- 
ered to the suburb of Cerro entirely 
by gravity, requiring no pump or ex- 
pense whatsoever other than a care 
taker to see to it that no foreign 
matter is allowed to get into the 
springs. At Cerro the water is de- 
posited in a great reservoir and then 
pumped to Havana for the purpose of 
giving it a heavy pressure. Before 
the building of high houses in Ha- 
vana the pumping station was not a 
necessity, as the water came all the 
way from Vento, carried along by its 
own gravity. 

The secret of the construction of 
Vento waterworks lies in the use of 

heavy iron pipes located in a tunnel 
der the river by this means in two 
of masonry. Travelers in automobiles 
out toward Vento often wonder for 
what purpose are a number of uni- 
form little brick houses stretched 
along at equal intervals for miles. 
Under this line of houses is flowing 
Havana's water supply and they are 
built to render easy and quick any 
repair which may be required at any 
time. But it is seldom anything ever 

seen just off Central Park and at the 
head of O'Reilly and Obispo streets. 
Albear was born in Havana in 1811, 
and was graduated as a civil engineer 
in Madrid. He entered the Spanish 
army and because of his engineering 
attainments rose rapidly. He was 
made a major and later a general. 
His greatest achievment was the Ven- 
to system. He died here in 1889. 

The monument is by the Cuban 
sculptor, Saavedra. It is life-size and 

an open ditch which succeeded an- 
other open ditch built in 1592. This 
ditch can still be seen filled with 
running water running back of the 
botanical gardens. The use of the 
water because of its exposed condi- 
tion is prohibited by the health de- 

The surplus water from these 
springs form the source of the Almen- 
Uares river which empties into the 
sea at Vedado, Havana's most popu- 



happens to this admirable system. In 
thirteen years' residence here the 
writer only knows of two general in- 
terruptions of the water service 
through the bursting of pipes and the 
work of repair in each instance was 
only a matter of a very few hours. 

This system of waterworks was 
built at a cost of $5,030,000 by a 
Cuban engineer named General Fran- 
cisco Albear. A statue raised in grate- 

is supported upon a pedestal carved 
with faces wreaths and engineering 
emblems. It bears this dedication in 
Spanish: "The City of Havana has 
erected this monument to her illus- 
trious son, D. Francisco de Albear y 
Lara." Havana is signified as a dig- 
nified female figure bearing on her 
breast the castles and the key of the 
city's escutcheon. 

Before the construction of the aque- 

lar residential suburb. A trip up this 
river in a small motor boat is a very 
pleasant experience. It is very deep 
and the current is treacherous so 
that the visitor would better resist its 
invitation to plunge into its clear, in- 
viting waters for a swim. The scen- 
ery along the banks of this river, es- 
pecially in the vicinity of the Tropical 
Brewery, which obtains its power 
from its current, is among the pret- 

Composed of a Fine Body of IVlen 
Who Reflect Credit Upon 

Surprise is almost always express- 
ed by visitors in Havana at the ex- 
cellency of the municipal police force. 
Travelers who are accustomed to 
many shortcomings of other similar 
organizations in the Latin-American 
countries where the policeman is .i 
small lord and is to be served rather 
than to serve, know how to appre- 
ciate a body of policemen such as pa- 
trol the streets of Havana. There 
are exceptions, of course, but the av- 
erage Havana patrolman is very po- 
lite and if a tourist comes to him in 
trouble or merely after information, 
he will, instead of merely shrugging 
his shoulders, if he does not under- 
stand, hunt an interpreter, and learn- 
ing the trouble will do all that he 

Woe to the Havana cabman who is 
caught trying to cheat a visitor. To 
the precinct he is sure to go and lit- 
tle mercy is shown him the next 
morning by the police judge. 

Owing to swindlers, both American 
and native, who have made a living 
imposing upon visitors to Havana, a 
special squad of English-speaking po- 
licemen has been detailed to do noth- 
ing else but look after the welfare of 
tourists. These special officers are 
to be found at the passenger landing. 

Havana's police force was organiz- 
ed in 1898 by John McCullagh, ex- 
chief of police of New York city. He 
was very careful in his selection of 
his men, choosing those who had 
served in the war of independence, 
and enjoyed a reputation for cool- 
headedness and bravery. In physique 
the Havana policeman will compare 
favorably with the average policeman 
in the United States, but as a rule 
what he lacks in stature and avoirdu- 
poise he makes up in bravery and en- 

The force is being constantly im- 
proved. Only recently the chief vis- 
ited several of the larger cities of the 
United States so as to get ideas help- 
ful to his work. His visit has re- 
sulted in much good, especially in the 
formatio'' of special traffic squad to 
look after navel in Havana's crowded 






Great Possibilities Lie Here in Pro- 
ducing Foodstuffs for Local 

Great possibilities lie in Cuba for 
agriculturists who wish to produce 
staple products for island consump- 
tion. United States Consul General 
Rogers has prepared an interesting 
article along this line. He says: 

In the table which follows, some 
staple articles of Cuban diet are giv- 
en, and it is certain that the list con- 
stitutes the bulk of the food stuffs 
consumed on the island. Add to the 
items given, those of bread, fish of 
various kinds, and fruit, and one has 
practically the food list of the great 
majority of the Cuban people. Tlie 
table gives the importation of these 
foods in the calendar year of 1906, 
the latest available printed statistics. 
Those of the current year will prob- 
ably equal in volume those of 1906, 
but th© prices will be somewhat 

Article. Pounds. Value. 

Rice 192,766,374 ?4,045,137 

Coffee 21,357,127 2,432,797 

Potatoes .. .. 82,155,823 1,104,577 

Onions 20,319,560 398,862 

Beans 28,241,356 1,010,629 

Eggs 4,643,885 824,389 

Value is given in U. S. currency. 

The duties levied in 1906 upon these 
six great items for food stuffs was 
$3,832,278, accounting for about 12 
per cent of the total revenue for the 
year and about 15 per cent of the total 
collection for customs. All of which 
is highly significant when it is known 
that the per capita charge on account 
of customs duties in Cuba is about 
$12.50, and that the duty levied upon 
these food stuffs, a portion of which 
at least could be produced at home, 
averaged about 39 per cent upon th? 
valuation assigned. 

Wholesale Prices in Havana. 

To show, however, what the Cuban 
and other people had to pay for them, 
a table which follows shows the pres- 
ent approximate wholesale prices 
(they are higher than those of the 
year 1906) in Havana, the currency 
used being that of the United States: 

Coffee (green), per pound $0.22 

Rice, per 100 pounds .... 3.65 

Potatoes, per 100 pounds 3.50 

Onions, per 100 pounds 2.75 

Beans, per 100 pounds 3.50 

Eggs, per dozen 45 

These prices are only an approxi- 
mation, because varying conditions 
cause changes. 

Possibilities in Production of Foods. 

Rice. — The island of Cuba in many 
parts is well adapted to raising rice, 
and this is especially true of the 
south coast when plentiful irrigation 
can be had. It is already raised in 
small quantities, but the price of Cu- 

growing in Cuba until labor gets 
cheaper, and that probably can only 
be accomplished by the introduction 
of Asiastics for such work as rice 

Coffee. — Although coffee from the 
world at large pays a duty of $23.40 
per 100 kilos, and of $18.72 from the 
the United States, and although Cuba 
was once a coffee-growing country, 
the industry in all parts of the coun- 
try has languished on account of the 

guaranty of the continuance of the 
duty at its present figure, then 
Americans or any others who can 
learn coffee raising and preparation 
should make money in the industry. 
But let labor prices advance, or the 
government abandon the policy of en- 
couraging coffee growing, and there 
is a probability of Cuban coffee grow- 
ing going the same way as in the old 
plantation area of the province of 
Pinar del Rio. 


ban labor, as compared with that of 
the East Indies, renders possible the 
shipment of Asiastic and Indian rice 
more than half way around the earth 
and the payment of a duty of $1.29 per 
100 kilos (kilo equals 2.2 pounds) up 
on all shipments of rice from coun- 
tries other than the United States, 
which, in spite of a 40 per cent re- 
duction, could not compete even it it 
was desired to do so. However, this 
would not argue for profitable rice 

cost of labor. This statement should 
be qualified, however, to this extent; 
In Oriente and Santa Clara provinces 
it is stated that new plantings are 
doing well physically and financially. 
Their financial condition is accounted 
for by better production and by the 
use of modern cleaning machinery, 
both of which, it is said broadly, al- 
most enable the raising at the price 
of the protection afforded by the duty. 
If such is the fact, and there is a 

Potatoes. — Practical experiment has 
proven that Irish potato's, as well as 
sweet potatoes, will grow in Cuba and 
grow well. They are raised in every 
province of the island now, and there 
does not yet seem to be good reason 
why a liberal percentage of the tubers 
used should not be takrn out of Cu- 
ban soil. It is alleged that the climate 
during about half of the year is not 
favorable to growth and storage, but 
it is believed that modern methods 

as represented by cold storage plants 
would overcome the latter difficulty 
at least and be profitable not only 
for the native product, but also for 
the imported. 

Eggs. — This product and its source, 
the chicken, constitute the greatest 
matter for wonder as to Cuban impor- 
tation. Knov/ing that the chicken will 
thrive in Cuba, its apparent scarcity, 
as judged by its price (45 cents a 
pound), constitutes a ground for re- 
flection upon the people. Theoreti- 
cally, therefore, the raising of chick- 
ens and the production of eggs which 
would follow should be one of the 
most profitable of human endeavor 
here. The climate is not too hot, na- 
tural food is easily raised or is ob- 
tainable by foraging, there are no ani- 
mal enemies, and the chicken and the 
egg are now staple articles of diet. 
In the year 1907 the egg importation 
rose to over $1,000,000 in value, and 
every gulf port steamer is now crowd- 
ed with chickens. Given protection 
in all ways, the chicken and egg busi- 
ness in Cuba should attract capital. 


Quail and Wild Pigeons Are in Great 
Abundance— Deer Hunting Is 
Popular Sport. 

The lover of hunting can find plen- 
ty of game in Cuba in the shape of 
quail, wild pigeons of various kinds, 
and deer. The quail and pigeons are 
very abundant and the hunter is near- 
ly always repaid for his tramp 
through Cuban meadows. 

The Cuban deer is of the antelope 
type, very much in favor with epi- 
cures because of its tenderness and 
flavor. Deer hounds are kept in large 
numbers in the city of Havana by lov- 
ers of this sport who find abundant 
game in the hills within two hours' 
ride of the capital. 

The seasons are as follows: 

Quail, from November 1 to Febru- 
ary 28. 

Pigeons, and all other birds, from 
October 1 to March 31. 

Deer, from September 1 to Febru- 
ary 1. . 

There are also English snipe and 


License given by the governor ol 
the province, $6 per year. May he re- 
newed every year by paying same 





Founded in 1899 in Unbrol<en Forest 
Americans Have IVIade It Blos- 
som Like the Rose. 

La Gloria is an American colony 
situated on the nort coast of Cuba, 
about fifty miles west of the old Cu- 
ban city of Nuevitas, which is its port 
of entry. Nuevitas Bay is one of the 
finest harbors on the north coast and 
capable of accommodating an Im- 
mense shipping. The route from Nue- 
vitas to La Gloria is through the in- 
side waters of Nuevitas and Guanaja 
bays (transportation). La Gloria lies 
back from the bay four and one-hali" 
miles, thus securing a desirable ele- 
vation. The Cuban government has 
built a macadam boulevard from the 
port to the bay. Port Viaro, to La 

The town site is one mile square 
and lies on a side hill with an eleva- 
tion of about one hundred feet to the 
mile, thus affording adequate drain- 
age. Its bread avenues run up the 
hill, while its streets cross the ave- 
nues at right angles. Excellent drink- 
ing water is obtained at La Gloria I 
from wells at a depth of from ten to 
fifteen feet. The health of the town 
has been most remarkable. 

The climate is delightful all the 
year round, with a difference of but 
ten degrees in the temperature be- '■ 
tY/een summer and winter, the ther- 
mometer ranging in summer from 70 
degrees at night to 90 degrees in the 
day time, and in winter from 60 de- 
grees at night to 80 degrees in the i 
day time. 

In 1899 the town site La Gloria was 
laid out in what was then an unbrok- 
en forest, and in January, 1900, the 
first colonists arrived. 

At the present time La Gloria has 
a population of about 1,000, including 
the nearby plantations, with about 300 
more settled in the surrounding colo- 

The plan of the town is distinctly 
American, the wide streets intersect- 
ing each other at right angles, a large 
park in the center, and ample school 
and church lots. About 90 per cent 
of the residents are English-speaking, 
the majority being Americans with 
British a close second. 

There are about li^O fr^mc buildings 

and quite a number of adaptations of 
the Cuban palm house. Most of the 
cottages have attractive settings and 
there are many neat yards gay with 
flowers and ornamental exotic shrub- 

The daily needs of the people are 
well supplied by nine stores. There 
are three American and two Cuban 
grocery stores, two dry goods stores, 
a clothing store and a hardware and 
stationery store. 

There is also a sawmill, a black- 
smith's shop, a general repair shop, a 
barber shop and several carpenter's 
repair shops. The bi-monthly "La 
Gloria Cuban American" has been 
printed and published in the town for 
over five years. 

In the matter of educational facili- 
ties La Gloria colony is fortunate in 
the possession of an unusually good 
primary school taught by an American 
certified teacher and supported by a 

generous donation from the Cuban 

The town has two churches, the 
Methodist Episcopal and the Episco- 

The chief enterprise of the colony 
is the cultivation of citrus fruits, 
oranges and grape fruit. The manu- 
facture of marmalade, canning of 
pineapples, etc 

At the present time La Gloria can 
lay a box of fruit down in New York 

at a low cost by reason of the all- 
water route to the steamer's side at 
Nuevitas. Between Nuevitas and Port 
Viaro an adequate service for freight 
and passenger transportation is 
maintained 1 y a steamer and two 
gasoline launches. 

To bring the interior transporta- 
tion facilities thoroughly up to date, 
a belt line railroad is to be bulit 
around the colonies with branches 
running to the groves in all directions. 


Monument to the Student Martyrs. 
The Firemen's Monument. 
Garcia 's Tomb. 

To reach Colon cemetery the visi- 
tor should take the Aduana-Universi- 
ty car leaving Central Park by way 
of Neptuno. It will bring him to the 
ponderous gateway of the cemetery 
surmounted by its massive group of 

figures of heroic size, symbolizing 
Faith, Hope and Charity. Below is 
a bas relief, the central figure of 
which is Columbus bearing the light 
of religion into the New World. 

The cemetery contains many hand- 
some monuments and not a few 
tombs of historic interest. Just be- 
yond the entrance on the left is the 
resting place of General Calixto Gar- 
cia, recipient of the famous "Message 
to Garcia" sent by the American 

president with a view to arranging 
co-operation between the Cuban and 
the American forces at the com- 
mencement of the Spanish-American 
war. Almost opposite is the tomb of 
Cuba's most dearly beloved warrior, 
Generalisimo Maximo Gomez, com- 
mander-in-chief of the Army of Lib- 
eration at the head of which he rode 
when Cuba came into her own and 
the tricolor flag of the single star 
entered Havana borne by a victorious 
host of men who had fought and won 
their country's independence. 

A little to the left, on a side ave- 
nue, is a monument erected to the 
Student Martyrs, shot at Punta in 
1871. The figures at the base of the 
shaft represent Justice and History, 
truth written in her scroll. The 
winged figure emerging from the door 
open in the pedestal is symbolical of 
Innocence. The monument is the 
work of the Cuban sculptor, Saavedra. 
The boys buried here were charged 
with desecrating the tomb of a Span- 
ish journalist. They were tried by 
court martial while a mob of Spanish 
volunteer soldiers and local riff-raff 
howled outside the prison walls. To 
appease the rioters they were lined up 
land executed, against the wall of a 
house which formerly stood opposite 
the Carcel, at the foot of Prado. A 
fragment of the wall, with a memo- 
rial tablet, stands there. 

Behind the chapel, which is oppo- 
site the main entrance, is a plot of 
ground where the victims of the 
Maine were buried until their removal 
to the United States. Before one 
arrives there one passes the costly 
Firemen's Monument erected by pop- 
ular subscription to the memory of 30 
members of the Volunteer Brigade 
who lost their lives in performance 
of their duty when a warehouse burn- 
ed on Mercaderes street. Gunpowder 
stored within the building, in defnacle 
of the law, exploded in the confla- 
gration and many persons besides 
these here buried were injured and 



Above Triscornia, the immigrant 
camp opposite Havana, there is an 
old fort called San Diego, used now 
as a residence. It probably antedatep 
both Morro and Cabafias. 






Is Largely Settled by Americans Who 
Own the Greater Part of Its 
Real Estate. 

The Isle of Pines is a small island 
situated off the south coast of Ha- 
vana province. It has been largely 
settled by Americans who now form 
the greater part of the population. 

These Americans are devoting 
themselves principally to the growing 
of citrus fruits for which the island 
is especially adapted. 

The island In general is a plateau, 
ranging from 50 to 100 feet above the 
sea level, and broken by ridges and 
clifts. The highest altitudes are 
reached by the Sierra de Caballos, 
1,674 feet, and the Sierra de Canada, 
1,650 feet. Mount Casas also has 
several hundred feet of altitude and 
is apparently entirely composed of 
very beautiful marbles of various 
colors. Mount Cristales is another 
remarkable formation earning its 
name because it. is abundantly cover- 
ed with green rock crystals. The 
northern part of the island is covered 
with pine trees and other valuable 
woods. This land is virgin and ex- 
ceedingly rich. Its area is 614.34 
square marine miles, or 521,381 acres. 

The island's greatest fame has been 
earned by its warm springs which 
has given it a world-wide reputation, 
which, judged from official and in- 
dividual reports as to the curative 
properties, are especially noted for 
curing stomach and kidney diseases 
and rheumatic troubles. Baths are 
erected over the springs and the isl- 
and is visited by many invalids who 
find relief from the disease men- 

The climate can certainly be de- 
scribed as one of the finest on earth. 
In fact, the soil, climate and water 
of the northern portion are ideal. The 
mercury seldom goes above 90 de- 
grees and never below 58 degrees. 
The average for the year may be stat- 
ed as 75 degrees. The sea breezes 
penetrate every part of the island, 
and, passing over the pine forests, are 
gentle and invigorating, tempering the 
heat of summer and lessening the cold 
of winter. The nights are generally 
cool and pleasant. There Is no doubt 

that In time, as the island becomes 
better known, it is destined to be a 
most important health and winter re- 
sort, as the conditions of the climate 
and vegetation combined make it 
attractive both to invalids and others 
who are in search of a more uniform 
temperature or who may wish to es- 
cape severe northern winters. No 
yellow fever, cholera or epidemics of 
any kind have ever been known to 
make their appearance on the island. 

suitable for tobacco, although it can 
be used also in the cultivation of su- 

The soil is so fertile and the cli- 
mate so salubrious that all the fruits 
and vegetables ' of the tropics, and 
nearly all the vegetables and some of 
the fruits of the temperate zone, can 
be grown. 

Poultry and live stock do very well 
all the year round. Hogs fatten on 
the wild fruits and palm nuts and cat- 

been a large influx of Americans in- 
to the island; it is estimated that 
there are now nearly 8,000 American 
property holders, large numbers of 
which are making homes there. 

There ara American schools and 
churches, and a bank conducted by 
Americans. American money is the 
currency of the island. The Ameri- 
can government of intervention ex- 
pended over $146,000 in building good 
I roads; of this sum $73,000 was spent 



Although it is south of Cuba, the tem- 
perature is somewhat lower, and it 
is visited both by the sick from Cuba 
and abroad, who come to be cured by 
the pure air and beneficial waters of 
its springs and creeks. 

The island produces fruits of all 
kinds and certain parts are probably 
as well adapted to tobacco culture as 
that of the famous "vuelta aba.1o" dis- 
trict of Cuba. The rich arable land 
scattered among the hills is especially 

tie on the rich grasses. The island 
appears specially fitted for grazing, 
and in time will doubtless become an 
important source of supply of cattle 
and sheep for the West Indies. 

The soil of the Isle of Pines is ad- 
mirably adapted to citrus fruit cul- 
ture, vegetable farming, pineapples 
and other products, and these re- 
sources are being developed by set- 
tlers from the United States. Since 
the Spanish-American war there has 

j on the road from McKinley to Nueva 
' Gerona and in the construction of an 
$8,000 steel bridge over one of the 
rivers of the McKinlsy colonies. 

The island is reached from Havana 
by the Union Railway, from Villanu- 
eva station, to Batabano, there con- 
necting with steamer for Nueva Ge- 
rona (60 miles) and other ports. A 
wireless telegraph service between 
Havana and the Isle of Pines is main- 
tained by the Cuban government 

Cuba Has Several Which Are Very 
Beneficial in Their IVledicinal 
Effects on Various Ailments. 

San Diego de los Baiios, Province 
of Pinar del Rio, has sulphur baths 
on the bank of the Caiguanabo river. 
The four springs for which the town 

I is noted are named the Tigre, the 
Templado. the Paila and the Santa 
Lucia. They are all inclosed under a 
single roof and have an average 
temperature of 90 degrees. They are 

I claimed to have great curative prop- 

\ erties for all skin diseases and are 
also of great value in rheumatic dis- 
eases and nervous affections. The 
place has a wide patronage and make 
pretensions as a popular resort. Gen- 
eral Ulysses Grant during his tour of 
the world, spent some time at these 
springs, taking the baths. 

Springs of mineral water are also 
found in the municipal district of 
Mariel. In the district of San Cristo- 
bal are springs called Soroa. 

In the Province of Havana springs 
are found at Guanabacoa, Madruga 
and Santa Maria de! Rosario. The 

I Santa Rita baths of Guanabacoa are 
popular with many residents of Ha- 
vana. Madruga has warm sulphur 
baths of curative qualities in cases of 
skin disease, and also springs of min- 
eral water said to be excellent for 
stomach trouble. 

The baths of Santa Maria del Ro- 
sario are famous for their medicinal 

There is an abundance ot natural 
springs all over the Isle of Pines, and 
those of Santa have an established 
reputation for their curative proper- 
ties, both in Cuba and abroad. The 
j waters are said to be particularly rich 
I in iron and magnesia, as well as oxy- 
|gen and carbonic acid gases, chlordie 
of sodium, sulphate of lime, carbonate 
of lime, chloride and nitrate of cal- 
icium, and silica. The temperature 
of the waters is generally about 82 
degrees Fahrenheit. Som? of the 
larger springs flow a stream ot water 
the size of a man's body. 


Beans.— All kinds ot beans are said 
to thrive in Cuba, but the product is 
subject to the ravages of the worms, 
and therefore must be protected in 






Disease Which Formerly Scouraged 
Island Has Been Eradicated by 
Modern Sanitation Methods. 

Yellow fever is a disease of the past 
in Cuba. Modern sanitation methods 
together with the knowledge of how 
the disease is transmitted, has result- 
ed in its being entirely stamped out. 
The disease has also lost a great deal 
of its danger because the means of 
preventing its spread being known, 
even though a case is imported to the 
island, by placing the patient where 
mosquitoes can not bite him, all pos- 
sibility of infection is avoided. 

The eradication of yellow fever 
from the island of Cuba, where it had 
existed 'for one hundred and fifty 
years, was one of the most remark- 
able and momentous achievements in 
the history of medical science. The 
result was mads possible by discov- 
ery of the fact that a certain mos- 
quito was the agent of transmission 
of the disease from one human being 
to another. The theory of the mos- 
quito's agency in the transmission of 
disease was first propounded by Dr. 
Carlos J. Finlay, of Havana, in 1881; 
and in 1900 its truth was demonstrat- 
ed by a series of experiments con- '. 
ducted by a board of investigators 
sent to Cuba by Surgeon-General 

The conclusions of the board, based 
on thSEe experiments, were: 

"1. The specific agent in the caus- 
ation of yellow fever exists in the 
blood of a patient for the first three 
days of his attack, after which time 
he ceases to be a menace to the health 
of others. 

"2. A mosquito of a single species, 
Stegomyia fasciata, ingesting the 
blood of a patient during this infect- 
ive period, is powerless to convey 
the disease to another person by its 
bite until about twelve days have 
elapsed, but can do so thereafter for 
an indefinite period, probably during 
the remainder of its life. 

"3. The disease can not in nature 
be spread in any other way than by 
the bite of the previously infected 
Stegomyia. Articles used and soiled 
by patients do not carry infection." 

These conclusions pointed so clear- 
ly to the practical method of exter- 

minating the disease that they were 
at once accepted by the sanitary au- 
thorities in Cuba and put to the test 
in Havana, where for nearly a cen- 
tury and a half, by actual record, the 
disease had never failed to appear an- 
nually. In February, 1901, the chief 
sanitary officer of Havana, Major W. 
C. Gorgas, instituted measures to 
eradicate the disease, based entirely 
on the conclusions of the commission. 
When the warm season returned a 

in the several provinces: Pinar del 
Rio, eight years before. Havana, 
January, 1908. Matanzas, December, 
1907. Santa Clara, February, 1908. 
Camaguey, November, 1907. Oriente, 
July, 1908. There have been to this 
writing no subsequent occurrences. 


Automobiles brought by tourists to 
Cuba escape paying duty. Only a 
deposit is required and this is refund- 
ed when machine is reshipped. 


The Island's Wonderful Recuperative 
Powers Are Eloquently Demon- 
strated in Her Trade. 

The movement of trade since Jan- 
uary 1, 1899, when the Americans as- 
sumed the government of the island 
demonstrates in an unmistakable 
manner the recuperative powers of 
Cuba and the possibilities of this isl- 


few cases occurred, but by September, 
1910, the last case of yellow fever 
originated in Havana. 

For a period of four years follow- 
ing, the island was free of the dis- 
ease. Cases of yellow fever have 
since been introduced from time to 
! time at different ports, but the dis- 
ease has been promptly extinguished. 
Writing in July, 1908, Dr. Finlay, chief 
sanitary officer, reported that the last 
occurrences of yellow fever had been 


Havana is the capital of the Repub- 
lic of Cuba, and is also the capital of 
the province of Havana. The cities 
of Pinar del Rio, Matanzas, Santa 
Clara and Camaguey are the capitals 
of the provinces of the same names. 
The city and province of Camaguey 
both formerly had the name of Puerto 
Principe. Santiago is the cipital of 
Oriente province, formerly Santiago 

and, which has only a very small part 
under cultivation, it being estimated 
that 9 per cent of Cuba's area is cul- 
tivated in cane; 2 per cent in tobac- 
co, and 4 per cent in other crops. The 
movement of trade shows that 47 per 
cent of the imports are from the 
United States, and 83 per cent of the 
exports go to the "United States. 

The following data compiled by the 
bureau of information of the Cuban 
government shows the progress made 

by commerce from the time the Amer- 
ican government took charge until 
the year 1908-1909. The figures since 
then have been correspondingly large, 
but although compiled by the Cuban 
government have not yet been offi- 
cially published: 

Year Importations Exportations 

1899- 00 $76,870,000 $49,399,000 

1900- 01 66,255,000 64,218,000 

1901- 02 66,063,000 54,247,000 

1902- 03 62,620,0'00 78,383,000 

1903- 04 74,492.000 94,399,000 

1904- 05 92,957,000 101,166,000 

1905- 06 106,505,000 107,256,000 

1906- 07 97,334,000 114,813,000 

1907- 08 98,829,000 112,122,000 

1908- 09 86,791,000 117,564,000 
The above table shows Cuba's trade 

to have increased from a debit of 
$27,471,000 to a credit of $30,773,000, 
equal to an increase of 138 per cent 
in the exportations. The small bal- 
ance in the year 1905-06 is accounted 
for by the heavy importations for that 

The importations for the fiscal year 
1908-09 were at the rate of $39 per 
capita, estimating the population at 
2,225,000, and the exportations for the 
same year were $52.84 per capita, 
showing a gain of $13.84 per capita. 

Estimating the population for the 
United States at 88,000,000, the im- 
ports, which were $1,311,920,224, 
would give $14.91 per capita, and the 
exports, which were $1,663,011,104, 
would give $18.89, or a gain per capi- 
ta of but $3.98. The exports of the 
States for that year exceeded the im- 
ports by less than 27 per cent, while 
the excess of Cuba's exports over her 
imports amounted to 36 per cent. The 
imports for Canada for the same year 
were $64.47, and the exports $48.69 
per capita, showing a loss in trade of 
$15.78. The imports and exports of 
the United Kingdom were $13.33 and 
$10.06 respectively, a loss per capita 
of $3.27; the same figures for France 
were $37.50 and $35.00, a loss of $2.50. 
The imports and exports of Germany 
for the same year were $34.03 and 
$26.23, a loss of $7.80. The imports 
and exports of Spain were $186,501,- 
800 and $186,170,200, or $9.44 and 
$9.42 per capita, showing a slight loss. 

The carriage parade on the Prado 
on Sunday afternoon is something 
that interests every American who 
comes to Havana. 





Memorial Erected in iVlemory of In- 
nocent Students Shot by the 
Spanish Volunteers. 

The Students' Monument in Colon 
Cemetery is a memorial erected in 
memory of eight students who peri^n- 
ed as a result of one of the most 
shameful acts In the history of the 
Spanish nation in the New World. 

In 1871 while the Ten Years' War 
for freedom was being carried on by 
the Cubans against the Spaniards, 
th«re was published in Havana an 
ultra Spanish paper called the Voice 
of Cuba. It was edited by a man 
named Gonzalo Castanon, a very able 
writer, but very bitter against every- 
thing Cuban. His attacks on the Cu- 
bans were always vitiolic but as they 
had no redress in their own country 
he was allowed to go unchallenged. 
Finally the editor began attacking 
the Cuban woman. The stinging ar- 
ticles from the p€n of the Spaniard 
worked the Cubans into white h€at, 
but how to get redress without plain 
assassination could not be solved. 
Finally a Cuban of high social posi- 
tion and the equal of the Spaniard 
in every way, went to Key West and 
from that place sent a letter to Cas- 
tanon in which he stated that it was 
impossible to challenge him to fight 
a duel in Cuba but he challenged him 
to go to Key West, In the land of 
Freedom, and there meet him in mor- 
tal combat. The editor, against the 
advice of his friends who tried to 
persuade him to ignore the letter, ac- 
cepted the challenge and went to Key 
West. There the two met and fought 
with pistols, the Spaniard being kill- 

Castanon's body was brought back 
to Havana and buried with great mil- 
itary pomp in one of the niches in the 
old catacombs, remains of which can 
still be seen behind the San Lazaro 
leper hospital. 

Some weeks after the burial of the 
editor, a party of m«dical students ol 
the Havana University were in the 
cemetery and a Spanish soldier who 
happened to be there at the same 
time asserted that he heard the stu- 
dents speaking disrespectfully regard- 
ing Editor Castanon. At the same 
time it was alleged the marble tablet 

in front of the dead man's tomb had 
been defaced 

The story of the soldier created a 
furor in Havana among the twenty 
thousand Spanish volunteers who 
were crowding Havana's streets. They 
immediately demanded vengeance. 
The tomb of Castanon was examined 
and some little scratches were found 
upon the tablet. It was alleged that 
these scratches had been done with a 
diamond ring by one of the students. 

posed of forty young men, was ar- i 
rested. They were tried by court- i 
martial. \ 
So loud was f?ie popular outcry I 
against the student? that no lawyer 
could be found to defend their cast^, 
until a brave Spanish officer named 
Capedevilla offered to do so. He de- 
fended the young men with such 
eloquence and proved so clearly that 
there was no proof against the young 
men that the court could do nothing 

washed his hands of it and granted 
the request putting the young boys, 
none were over sixteen, for a second 
time in jeopardy of their lives. 

The second trial, as could be ex- 
pected, was little more than a farce, 
and they were found guilty. The 
sentence provided that the forty stu- 
dents should be formed in line and 
every fifth one shot, and the other 
thirty-two condemned to exportation 
to the Spanish penal colony in Africa. 


did not hesitate but quickly shoved 
his brother down one number and 
took his place. A prominent Havana 
merchant, on seeing his only son, one 
of the eight to be shot, on his bent 
knees plead for his and offered 
to place him on the scales and pay 
as his ransom his weight in gold. 
Such sorrow only added to the joy ot 

i the jubliant volunteers. 

The eight boys were then made to 
kneel before the part of the wall 
where the memorial tablet at the fool 
of the Prado is placed, and a squad 
of Spanish volunteers in charge of a 
sergeant, shot them to death. 

The rest of the students were then 
shipped to Africa, sentenced to life 
imprisonment at hard labor. 

1 This awful crime naturally had its 
reaction. When the full details reach- 
ed Spain, the Spanish people there 
were indignant and the Spanish cortes 
ordered an investigation and as a re- 
sult pronounced the students guiltless, 
and those sentenced to Africa were 

i pardoned. Years afterwards a son of 
Castaiion came from Spain for his 
father's remains and opened the tomb 
in the presence of a notary public 
before whom he made the declaration 
that it had never been disturbed. 

The monument was erected from 
funds provided by popular subscrip- 
tion. It consists of an elaborately 
carved pedestal, supporting a shaft 
which is draped with mantle and 
wreath. At the base of the shaft are 
two noble figures symbolical of Jus- 
tice and History. The scales of Jus- 
tice are tipped and her sword is brok- 
en. Upon History's scrool is inscrib- 
ed Verdad (Truth). Emerging from 
the open door, and bearing a tablet 
inscribed Immunis (Guiltless) is the 
winged figure of Innocence. The 
monument is by the Cuban sctttptor 



The Spanish soldier who had heard 
the remarks of the students made a 
declaration before a judge and im- 
plied that he thought they had also 
defaced the tomb. 

The newspaper which had been ed- 
ited by Castanon was joined by others 
of the Spanish press in demanding 
summary vengeance upon the medi- 
cal students. It was impossible to 
ascertain what student or students 
were guilty, so the entire class, com- 

but bring in a verdict of acquittal. 

The result of the court-martial only 
enraged the volunteers the more, and 
they petitioned the captain general for 
another court-martial trial, with the 
stipulation that two-thirds of the 
judges should be officers of the vol- 
unteers. The captain general, like 
Pilate, when Christ was brought be- 
fore him, knew the populace was de- 
manding the punishment of the guilt- 
less, and like Pilate, he also said he ! 

The unfortunates were lined up 
against the commissary building, a 
fragment of which may be seen to the 
right of the Prado at the Malecon 
with a little cement fence around it, 
and a Spanish sergeant ordered every 
fifth boy to step forward. The boys 
comported themselves like heroes. 
One young man, counting more rapid- 
ly than the sergeant, saw that his 
younger brother was the fifth and 
consequently destined to be shot. He 

Santa Clara battery on the Havana- 
side of Vedado is occupied by troops, 
as are those other battery-barracks 
along the shore in that same suburb. 


Reina battery has been razed to 
form the park in front of La Benefi- 
cencia Maternity Home and < '.pliaD 





Genuine Article Made in Havana 
Only of Legitimate Vuelta 
Abajo Tobacco. 

The name Havana to the world at 
large means cigars. Real Havana ci- 
gars (or Habanos, as they are prop- 
erly designated) are those manufac- 
tured of genuine Vuelta Abajo tobacco 
elaborated in the city of Havana — and 
not anywhere else. 

Just as Vuelta Abajo tobacco cannot 
be equalled by any produced else- 
where so cigars made of that leaf by 
the expert cigarmakers of Havana, 
under conditions prevailing in this 
city, cannot be successfully imitated, 
even by as expert workers situated 
elsewhere, not even though they use, 
as some may, genuine Vuelta Abajo 

For just as real Vuelta Abajo to- 
bacco plants, when propagated out- 
side Vuelta Abajo, even in regions but 
a few miles distant from that favored 
section, lose their distinguishing qual- 
ities, so Vuelta Abajo leaf though j 
grown, selected and baled there, if 
transported outside Cuba and manu- ] 
factured abroad, loses in transit the ! 
condition requisite to the fashioning i 
of a real Habano, and if elaborated 
anywhere save in this city fails to 
make a genuine Havana cigar. 

These statements may sound in- 
credible to persons not fully informed ; 
in the matter. It seems impossible 
to the inexperienced that certain 
lands in the West end of the island 
should produce valuable leaf, while : 
certain other lands alongside them, 
and to all appearance identical in na- 
ture, will not grow tobacco acceptable ' 
at all, yet speculators who have tried 
to produce crops upon the latter have ! 
found to their cost in dollars and I 
cents that distinctions the natives 
draw between lands which are good 
for tobacco and others which are not, 
are usually correct no matter how 
arbitrary and capricious they may 
aeem. Similarly, it sounds to the 
uninitiated far-fetched to state that a 
bale of tobacco, if manufactured Into 
cigars in Havana will produce real 
Habanos whereas the same tobacco, 
if shipped away from Cuba and there 
handled by as clever manipulators, 
will, nevertheless, make cigars of a 

very different quality. Yet tobacco 
dealers and connossieurs know that 
this Is a fact. 

The tobacco plant is very sensitive 
at all times. During propagation, as 
seedling and as maturing plant, it 
needs the most assiduous care. Its 
leaf while in storage preparatory to 
elaboration, and during the process of 
manufacture into cigars, is ■especially 
sensitive and absorbent. The slight- 
est change in climatic conditions af- 

posed upon manufactured tobaccos 
entering the United States from Cu- 
ba. If removed to Florida the factor- 
ies of famous Havana brands, even 
though they continued to purchase 
the best of genuine Vuelta Abajo 
leaf, would cease to turn out real Ha- 
bano cigars the moment they aban- 
doned their present location, for they 
could not carry with them the cer- 
tain temperature and degree of at- 
mospheric humidity prevailing In this 

consumer with taste and the means 
to gratify it accepts as final, using 
the genuine article thereafter, to the 
exclusion of all substitutes, no mat- 
ter how ingeniously marketed these 
imitations may be. 

Today the most exclusive clubs, the 
large hotels and fashionable restau- 
rants, do not insult the taste of their 
patrons by offering them any other 
than the genuine Habano cigars, just 
as the caterers and purveyors to the 


fects it, and herein lies the secret of 
alteration which occurs in tobacco 
shipped from Havana for use in fac- 
tories abroad. 

Because these things are true, cap- 
ital invested in cigar and cagarette 
factories in Havana maintains estab- 
lishments here instead of removing 
them to the United States (to Florida, 
for instance) where they might oper- 
ate at less expense and their pro- 
duct escape heavy customs duties im- 

city, and necessary to the elaboration 
of a real Habano. 

Millions of American cigars made 
of Cuban tobacco masquerade, how- 
ever, under the name Hr.bano, and 
are sold upon the reputation of Ha- 
vana cigars. They are commonly 
called "clear Havanas." They serve, 
nevertheless, to educate the consum- 
er, leading him up from the five-cent 
domestic cigar to the real Habano, 
which, when once he meets it, every 

royal houses of Europe have not dar- 
ed to provide other than Habano ci- 
gars to their sovereigns and the royal 
households. The fact is that real He- 
bano cigars are used to the extent 
that discriminate and exclusive taste 
is cultivated. The imitators who 
thrive upon their reputation serve, as 
has been stated, a good purpose, how- 
ever, in leading the uneducated up to 
the cigars which finally gratify the 
longing for perfect satisfaction. 


For Excellency and Beauty Are Un- 
surpased In the World — Are 
Automoblllsts' Delight. 

Cuba has some excellent roads, 
which for beauty are probably un- 
surpased in the world. These roads 
were begun by the Spanish military 
authorities, and those constructed by 
them were purely for military pur- 
poses. Today they have been extend- 
ed, and are employed in the pursuit 
of trade and pleasure. 

For automobiling there is probably 
no place on earth which offers greater 
attractions, particularly during the 
winter season, than Cuba. These 
roads are sixteen feet four inches 
wide (five meters), built on good 
foundations, well graded, and are kept 
in constant repair. On either side 
lovely trees are planted, which furn- 
ish s'had« and give an artistic touch 
to the road. At places the road is 
lined with royal poinciana, or flam- 
boyante trees, which in- the late win- 
ter and early spring are a mass o£ 
flaring flowers intermingled with the 
feathery plumelike leaves, the limbs 
meeting overhead forming a canopy 
of blossoms and bloom. 

At other places, on the older roads, 
immense laurel trees completely 
shade them, the dense dark green fol- 
iage furnishing a striking contrast 
with the white ribbon of macadam 
which narrows in the distance until 
it disappears in the cool shade of the 
stately archway. 

Havana province, being the most 
densely populated, has the greatest 
mileage of these roads. In all there 
are 928.96 miles (1496 kilometers), 
distributed as follows: 

Province Kilometers Miles 

Havana 483 300 

Pinar del Rio 405 251.50 

Santa Clara 191 118.62 

Santiago 187 116 

Matanas 178 110.54 

Camaguey 52 32.30 

Total 1,496 928.96 

The above extension of roads are 
all completed, and in addition to them 
there are about 10 per cent more now 
under the course of construction, 

Good money may be made in Cuba. 





Is Very Different from Cemeteries In 
the United States — Graves Are 
Rented for Certain Periods. 

Columbus Cemetery, where proba- 
bly ninety-nine per cent of burials 
occur, Is one of the most notable in- 
stitutions of Havana. 

A monumental arch of granite is 
over the entrancs to the cemetery 
and it has three openings, two for 
pedestrians and one for carriages in 
the center. Above the central arch 
is a sculptured work by Saavedra, 
representing the scene of the cruci- 
fixion. Surmounting the whole is a 
group of heroic figures, representing 
Columbus bringing the light of the 
new religion to the New World. 

The cemetery has many handsome- 
ly sculptured marbles and tombs. 
Porcelain flowers are greatly used in 
Cuba for grave decoration and are to 
be seen adorning the graves on every 
hand. Beautiful trees and natural 
flowers are seen on every hand. 

Just within the enclosure the first 
tomb of special interest is that of the 
famous Cuban general and patriot, 
Calixto Garcia who died in Washing- 
ton soon after the conclusion of peace 
between the United States and Spain. 
He was one of the best generals on 
the Cuban side and was greatly loved 
by the Cubans. The memorial was 
provided by public subscription under 
the auspices of the Club Calixto Gar- 
cia. It is decorated by a great mass 
of floral wreaths and banks of flow- 
ers in porcelain. On the tomb is 
carved this sentiment: "To die for 
country is to live." 

A short distance from this monu- 
ment and on the left is the Students' 
monument, erected as a memorial to 
the Cuban medical students who were 
slaughtered by the Spanish volunteers 
of Havana on the false charge of hav- 
ing desecrated the grave of a Spanish 
editor. This story is told on another 
page. The monument consists of a 
carved pedestal, supporting a shaft 
which is draped with a mantle and 
wreath. At the base are two symboli- 
cal figures representing justice and 

The most imposing mounment in 
the cemetery is that erected to the 
memory of thirty volunteer firemen 

who lost their lives in a fire on Mer- 
caderes street on May 17, 1890. The 
shaft stands seventy-five feet high 
and is surmounted by a cross resting 
against which is an angel with out- 
stretched wings, supporfting the body 
of a fireman. The monument cost 

To the right of the Firemen's mon- 
ument is the tomb of the late General 
Maximo Gomez, probably the most 
noted general in Cuba's two great 

moved to Arlington Cemetery at 

The letters B. P. D. or E. G. E. are 
the Spanish abbreviations for "Rest 
in Peace" and "He is in Grace." 

The prevailing mode of burial is 
a stone cased grave covered with a 
marble slab, or in vaults above the 
ground. In this cemetery if one has 
enough money he can buy a perma- 
nent grave, but if he has not the 
graves are only rented for a term of 

in Havana, the Jewish, the Baptist 
and the Chinese. In the latter ceme- 
teries graves once boughi; are the 
permanent property of the deceased. 

Much of the solemnity attending a 
funeral in the United States is ab- 
sent in Cuba. Here the hearse is a 
most gorgeous affair, trimmed in 
bright colors and sometimes costing 
thousands of dollars. The horses, some 
times eight in number have trappings 
of orange, crimson and purple and 

the men occupy the carriages. Arriv- 
ed at the cemetery the coffin is takeu 
from the hearse and carried into the 
sacristy in the left of the entrance. 
Here the priest in charge says a brief 
service for the dead after which the 
body is again placed in the hearse 
and taken to the grave or it is carried 
on the shoulders of the real mourn- 

The dead of the poorer classes is 
sometimes borne for miles through 
the city to the cemetery on the shoul- 
ders pf relatives and friends. Some 
1 times a coffin is rented from an un- 
j dertaker for the occasion and upon 
j arrival at the grave the body is dump- 
ed into one of the common ditches 
and the coffin is returned. Another 
time the coffin is constructed from 
dry goods boxes. 

A few remnants of one of Havana's 
most interesting burial places are 
still to be seen back of San Lazaro 
Hospital. In this space the walls of 
which are still to be seen, bodies 
were deposited in niches in catacomb 
form. Some seven years ago the 
cemetery was bought by private par- 
ties and the remains were removed 
to Colon Cemetery. During the time 
of General Weyler it is stated that 
the empty tombs often offered the 
only night's lodging available to many 
Cuban vagrants. The cemetery which 
was called Espada, has not received 
new bodies since the late '70's, or 
since the completion of Columbus 




wars for independence. He was born 
at Boni, Santo Domingo, in 1836, and 
died in Havana in 1905. The monu- 
ment was voted by congress. 

The building beyond the Firemen's 
monument is the chapel where masses 
are said for the repose of the souls of 
the dead. Nearby is the plot which 
was used for the burial place of the 
victims of the battleship Maine. All 
of the bodies of those recovered were 
interred at this until they were re- 

years after which if the rent is not 
renewed the bones are taken from the 
grave and dumped with countless 
thousands of others in the bone pile 
to be seen at the southwest corner 
of -the cemetery. A grave for one 
person for a term of five years costs 
ten dollars, but if three bodies are 
placed in the same grave then the 
cost is three dollars for the same 

There are three other cemeteries 

black. The driver and footmen gen- 
erally wear a court dress of purple or 
scarlet, with three cornered hat, 
some times over a powdered wig, 
knee breeches and silvered shoe 
buckles. There are liveried footmen 
or mourners in proportion to the 
wealth of the deceased. 

There is a dearth of woman's tears 
at a Cuban funeral. Cuban women 
never go to the cemetery with the 
remains of relatives or friends. Only 

The Republic of Cuba is very near 
as large as the state of Pennsylvania; 
it is larger than Ohio, larger than 
Maine and Vermont together, and 
twice as large as the other tour New 
England States combined. Were 
Cuba (laid across the map of the 
United States, placing one end at 
New York, the other would almost 
touch Chicago. 



The plantation of Jatibonico is own- 
ed by the Cuba Company. The gray 
walls of its sugar house shelter ma- 
chinery reputed to be the finest in 
the republic. Its capacity is to be 
doubled; it will then rank among 
the monster mills of Cuba. 





There Are Many Varieties, All Are 
Vtry Good, Though Taste for 
Some Must Be Acquired. 

Cuba has a large variety of fruits, 
most of whicli are very good, though 
the foreigner sometimes has to ac- 
quire a taste for them before he can 
appreciate their true worth. Many of 
these fruits can be obtained in the 
markets throughout the tourist sea- 
son, and an excursion through thi 
fruit stalls and a purchase of a sam- 
ple of all will do no harm and will 
be educational. The Cuban fruits 
which withstand shipping are grad- 
ually becoming known in the United 
States and the visitor from Cuba is 
often astonished at seeing fruit from 
the island, which at home is worth 
but a cent or two, commanding fancy 
prices in some fruit stand in the 
North. Some of the more prominent 
of these fruits are as follows: 
Aguacate (Alligator Pear). 

This is one of the most popular 
fruits in the Antilles; it is pear-shap- 
ed, green or purple, and often weighs 
two pounds. On account of the pulp 
being firm and marrow-like, it is also 
known as vegetable marrow or mid- 
shipman's butter. The tree is an ev- 
ergreen about twenty-five or thirty 
feet high. The aguacate is native to 
Cuba, thrives everywhere and is easi- 
ly grown. It is free from insect pests 
and diseases. The Havana market 
consumes vast quantities of the fruit 
in July and August. The aguacate 
is eaten as a salad. It is becoming 
known in the United States, and is 
found in the fruit stores of northern 
cities, has a place on the menu of 
hotel and restaurant, and brings high 
prices. The cultivation of choice va- 
rieties in Cuba for shipment to the 
northern market promises to be an 
extensive and lucrative industry. 
Banan (Plantano). 

There are many vari«ties of this 
fruit, which takes the place of bread 
in all country lamilies, being eaten 
raw or cooked in many different ways. 
Cashew (Maranon). 

The cashew is a small, oddly-shap- 
ed, yellow and red fruit, two or three 
inches long, and from one and one- 
half to two inches across the bottom 
decreasing gradually in diameter to- 

ward the top, where it is half an inch 
narrower. The seed is small, grayish- 
brown and kidney- shaped, and is 
found on the outside of the fruit at 
its lower extremity. This seed is 
poisonous until roasted, when it is 
eaten with great relish. The meat re- 
sembles that of roasted chsstnuts, 
but contains more oil. The pulp is 
of a dull yellow color, tough and very 
juicy, with an acid astringent flavor 
and a marked disagreeable odor. The 

Custard Apple (Chirimoya). 

The custard apple, known in Cuba 
as the chirimoya, varies from a light 
green to a riddish brown in color, and 
is shaped like a strawberry, being 
somewhat broader than it is long. It 
has a thick skin, black seeds and a 
pulp very similar to that of the sweet- 
sop in appearance and flavor. The 
fruit is eaten raw. 

Figs (Higos). 

Figs of all kinds grow luxuriantly. 

fruit to which Americans are accus- 
tomed. It retails in Havana at about 
two and one-half cents apiece. 
Guava (Guayaba). 
There are several varieties of guava 
growing wild in all parts of Cuba. 
The guava is sometimes eaten raw, 
but the finest jellies, pastes, etc., are 
made from it. 


This is the fruit of a small shrub 
and Is sometimes called the cocoa 

fruit is not eaten raw, but is some- 
what used for preserving. 

This fruit grows in bunches of from 
twelve to twenty on a tree, from sixty 
to ninety feet high. The nut when 
fresh contains nearly one quart of 
milk, which is very much esteemed 
by the natives for refreshment. The 
thick rind or husk surrounding the 
nut is used in making cordage, mat- 
ting, brushes, bags, etc. 


This fruit grows on the vine which 
bears the passion flower. The fruit is 
generally as large as a child's head. 
It is much liked by the natives who 
use it in making refreshments and 
desserts. The meat is glutinous and 
contains many small seeds. 

Grapefruit (Toronja). 

This is a popular fruit in Cuba. It 
has a mild, pleasant flavor and is 
quite different from the acid, bitter 

plum. It is small aTid round, varying 
from one to three inches in diameter, 
and averages about eight grams (one- 
quarter ounce) in weight. The skin 
is thin and green in color, shading to 
red on one side. The surface is un- 
even, being covered with depressions 
which give it the shriveled appear- 
ance. The seed is large, weighing al- 
most half as much as the fruit. 
I Mamey de Santo Domingo. 

This is a large light brown fruit. 

ranging from three to ten inches in 
diameter, the larger sizes weighing 
upward of 700 grams (1-5 pounds). 
It has a heavy stem and a small blos- 
som navel. The skin is thick and fi- 
brous, the outer surface being tough 
and covered with small dark brown 
spots. The pulp is dark yellow in 
color, firm and very juicy. It has a 
sweet characteristic flavor and a 
pleasant aromatic odor. In the large 
fruits the seed measures three inches 
in diameter and is dark brown, very 
rough and hard, and clings tenacious- 
ly to the pulp. In some respects the 
fruit resembles a very large clingstone 
peach. It is eaten raw, and is also 
highly esteemed for preserving. The 
"mammey en almibar" are slices of 
the fruit preserved in sugar syrup. 
The "mermelade de mammey" is a 
marmalade of the fruit. 

Mamey Colorado. 
The fruit derives its local name 
from a very slight outward resem- 
blance to the mammee (Mammea 
americana). The two fruits, however, 
are in no way related, nor do they 
resemble each other internally. The 
mamey Colorado is chocolate brown 
in color from yellowish red to deep 
scarlet and is slightly fibrous, firm, 
but mealy and not juicy. Being sweet 
with very little acid the flavor is in- 
sipid. It is eaten in a fresh state 
and also stewed with sugar. 


The mango is the popular tropical 
fruit of the native Cuban. It grows 
in all parts of the island, on trees by 
the roadside and in orchards of high- 
ly prized cultivated fruit. The kinds 
that have been cultivated only slight- 
ly appeal but little to the foreigner, 
being very fibrous and having a 
strong resinous flavor. Both of these 
objections are overcome in the well 
cultivated varieties, however, and 
very soon a taste is acquired for all. 
The fruit is heartshaped, some be- 
ing long and narrow, while others 
are broad and short or almost round. 
The skin is like that of an apple, but 
thicker, and varies in color from 
green to yellow, always shading to 
red on one side. The pulp is not un- 
like that of a peach in texture .iia'' 
color, and is extre,-^iy juicy. T^-ia 
stone or seed is very laigc compared 
with the rest of the fruit, and th'- 
especially true of the u'- " .vated va- 
rieties. Long fibres cover the stone 



and run through the pulp of the fruit. 
The season in Cuba lasts from May 
to September. The mango is prefer- 
red in the raw state, but is usea 
somewhat in the preparation of jams 
and jellies, and the green fruit when 


of the sapota tree and the juice of the 
green fruit, when boiled down, furnish 
what is known in commerce as chicle, 
from which chewing gum is made. 
Sour-Sop (Guanabana). 
The sour-sop is a green, irrsgular- 

stewed resembles rhubarb. The shaped, podlike fruit varying from 

"mangos enalmibar" are pieces of 
mango preserved in a thick syrup, 
while the marmalade of mangos is 
a thin paste resembling apple sauce 
in appearance. 


This fruit grows in clusters. It is 
a species of plum; it is tart and has 
one fibrous pit. 


The native Cuban oranges are 
known as the China, a fruit of very 
delicious flavor, and the sour orange 
known as naranja agria. The latter 
is used for making marmelade and for 
preserving. The fruit is often served 
in a restaurant with a meat order, 
the juice squeezed upon the meat 
tending to make it tender. Oranges 
of every description have been intro- 
duced to Cuba during the last twelve 
years by Americans and nearly all 
of the varieties are doing very well. 

The papaya is about ten inches 
long, commonly of an oblong form, 
ribbed, and having a thick fleshy rind. 
It is eaten raw, or, when green, is 
boiled as a vegetable; it is also pick- 
led. The tree is about twenty feet 
high and has large leaves. Meat 
boiled with a small portion of the leaf 
is made tender, or meat can be made 
tender by simply hanging it among 
the leaves. The seeds are used as a 
vermifuge. J 
Sapota (Sapodilla). 

There are two varieties of this fruit i 
in Cuba, one being round and the oth- 
er oval. In the Havana market the 
latter is incorrectly known as the nis- 
pero, this name being properly ap- 
plied to the loquat (Briobotrya jo- 
ponica). The fruit averages slightly 
under two ounces in weight, is brown 
to greenish-brown in color, appearing 
not unlike a very smooth, dark po- 
tato. The skin, however, is much 
thicker and of coarser texture. The 
pulp is yellowish brown. In color 
granular in texture and very juicy. 
It has a charaf'iferistic odor and flavor 
and is ve'ry sweet. Sapotas ara in 
season from about the first of April 

three and one-half to twelve inches in 
length, about two-thirds as broad 
near the top, and curving to a blunt 
point at the lower end to one side of 
the center. The skin is rather thick 

straining off the pulp. The "guana- 
bana en almibar" is composed of the 
pulp of the fruit preserved in sugar 
syrup. The "pulpa de guanabana al 
natural" is the pulp preserved with- 
out sugar for cafe and soda water 
trade when the fruit is out of season. 
Sweet-Sop (Anona). 
The sweet-sop is heart-shaped and 
deeply creased. Tha pulp is very 
much like that of the sour-sop, but it 
contains more sugar and, as a rule, a 

The fruit atttains the size of a small 
apple, averaging 200 grams (7 ounces) 
in weight. It contains two kinds of 
pulp, the inner one of which, a white 
gelatinous mass containing the small 
black seeds of the fruit, the other 
fibrous purple portion being useless. 
It has a sweet characteristic flavor 
and is eaten raw. 

Tamarind (Tamarindo). 
The tamarind is the fruit of the 
leguminous tree. The fruit is a dark 


Comparison With Records of South- 
ern States Shows Little Differ- 
ence Between Two Sections. 

The average rainfall in Cuba for 
the past twenty-five years has been 
53.57 inches, about equal to that of 
the Gulf States, but more than the 
Northern Seaboard States. For the 
time mentioned the mean monthly 
rainfall in Cuba, by inches, has been: 
January, 2.71; February, 2.27; March, 
1.83; April, 2.83; May, 4.47; June, 
7.16; July, 6.36; August, 6.58; Ssp- 
tember, 6.71; October, 7.42; Novem- 
ber, 3.08, ^nd December, 2.15. It 
will be seen that during the warmer 
months, when vegetation requires 
most water, nature has made ample 
provision for the thirst of all the flora 
peculiar to this country. Although 
Cuba has a wet and dry season it is 
not very noticeable in the above. 



and covered with numerous small 
hooked briers. The pulp, which has 
the appearance of wet cotton, sur- 
rounds the numerous tough seed sacs 
containing small brown seeds. The 
flavor is acid without being sweet. 
It is highly esteemed for making cool- 
ing summer beverages, flavoring soda 
water syrups and water ices, and for 
preserving. The most popular bev- 

erage is made by macerating the fruit 
until the dli'd' of the summer. The sap i with sugar, diluting with water and 

smaller percentage of acid. Sweet- 
sops are eaten in the fresh and soda 
water syrups. It is not so popular as 
the sour variety. 

Star-Apple (Caimito). 
The caimito, one of the less impor- 
tant fruits, is but little used, although 
some medicinal properties are attrib- 
uted to it. Three different varieties 
are sold in the Havana market, ons 
white and two purple kinds, one of 
which is round pnd the other oval. 

brown pod, from one to six inches 
long and from three-quarters to one 
inch in width. Within, there is a 
thick, dark-colored pasty material 
closely surrounding the tough seed 
sacks and joined to the stem of the 
pod by several coarse fibres. This 
paste constitutes the edible portion 
of the fruit and is intensely sour. 
The fruit is used in making refreshing 
summer beverages and for flavoring 
soda water syrups. 

The word "tobacco" is Indian . . . 
It is derived from the name of an 
isle of the lesser Antilles called Ta- 
bago, where the plant grows wild in 
profusion. The word "nicotine" is de- 
rived from the name of the French 
ambassador, Jean Nicot, who in 1560 
took to Europe leaves and seed of to- 
bacco, which he presented to Cather- 
ine de Medici, as curiosities on ac- 
count of their aroma, in burning when 
smoked — I say when smoked, tor un- 
doubtedly M. Nicot, who imported to 
France the seed and filler, must have 
learned to smoke in America and pre- 
I sented them to Catherine to please 
1 her with a new vice, which surely did 
I please the queen, for tobacco became 
' known in France as "the queen's 
herb." — Dr. Jose de Aguayo in La Lu- 
cha, February 4, 1909. "The Antillean 
(aboriginal Indian) word for the plant 
Nicotiana, called by Europeans, to- 
bacco, are cohiba, cogiba, coyoba, co- 
gioba, cohot, etc. The aborigines ap- 
plied the name tobacco to a pipe or 
roll of dried leaves called a cigar." — 
Jesse Walter Fewkes, The Aborigines 
of Porto Rico and Neighboring Isl- 
ands p. 63 (Washington, 1907, Bureau 
American Ethnology). 


The possibilities of Cuba suggest 
themselves to every visitor. 





Peculiar Places in Which Cuban To- 
bacco Is Grown in Pinar del 
Rio Province. 

The Organo Mountains, which dom- 
inate all Pinar del Rio province, are 
full of caves, which were once the 
courses of subterranean streams; and 
of open "sinks" eroded picturesquely. 
The softer cream and white limestone 
formations which, laid upon a hard 
blue limestone, form the range, are 
very susceptible to the action of 

American residents around San 
Cristobal make picnic excursions to 
an immense ampitheaterlike cavern 
above that town. Residents in Taco. 
Taco point out the location of "In- 
dian Cave" in the mountains oppo. 
site. There are caverns at "The Por- 
tals" where San Diego river has swept 
through natural stone barriers which 
once dammed it into a lake, as hewn 
stone may again, for irrigation pur- 

There are caves and "sinks" within 
easy riding distance of Pinar del Rio 
city. One particularly strange set of 
deep little valleys is to be found in 
the hills known as the Sierra del In. 
fierno; these are honeycombed with 
caves eaten into the yielding rook. 
Roads leading that way dwindle into 
a trail persisting up and down steep 
slopes, along the tops of narrow 
ridges, from where wide views of ex. 
Quisite landscape and even of the 
Caribbean sea to the south are to be 
had; suddenly the path drops into a 
valley so narrow it is in fact but a 
gorge not more than a stone's throw 
across. Here, on fertile bottom lands, 
an industrious guajiro (countryman) 
has built his hut and tilled for the 
planting of corn and tobacco in rota, 
tion. No whelled vehicle could pos- 
sibly be of service in this neighbor- 

A little stream runs the length of 
the valley, disappearing through a 
solW wall at its far end. Here the 
stream has worn a tunnel through liv. 
ing rock; the tunnel is high and wide 
enough to permit the passage of 
horses wading along the creek itself 
single file. Venturing through it so 
mounted the explorer finds himself 

emerging into an unroofed circle en. 
tirely shut in by white cliffs. He 
stands within what was once a cave; 
the top fell in long ago. There is but 
the one entrance to the place, the 
narrow door by which he and the 
stream entered; there is no other exit 
for him — the creek disappears into 
the earth through a series of the 
caves which are numerous in the 
surrounding walls. Seen at twilight 
this weird locality looks up to its 


The reader, in a Havana cigar fac. 
tory, is a remarkable institution. 

He is paid by the men of his par. 
ticular gallery, who contribute to his 
salary and to the purchase of books 
and periodicals he reads aloud, in a 
fog-horn voice, to his constituents as 
they work. 

Vote is taken among them as to 
what daily papers he shall read, and 


All of the railroad stations in Ha- 
vana are of easy access from the cen- 
ter of the city, either by street car 
or by coach. The locations of the 
various stations are as follows: 

United Railways of Havana. — (1.) 
Villanueva station, Prado and Dra- 
gones, opposite Colon Park. From 
Central Park take Principe, Cerro or 
Palatino cars. (2.) Regla station via 



name. Sitio del Infierno, to translate 
which would be plain profanity. 

Like this uncanny valley there are 
many others, larger and smaller all 
through the Organo Range. What til- 
able land there is in them is always 
very fertile, and, from San Diego de 
los Banos westward, is eagerly seized 
upon by tobacco growers, who refer 
such inaccesible, isolated places, as 
"holes in the hills," than which no 
description could be more accurate. 

what books. Preference is about 
equally divided among Havana's daily 
papers. As to novels, Don Quixote 
and Quo Vadis are the standbys, and 
it is a rather surprising fact that the 
taste of a cigar factory is usually for 
good literature rather than anything 
too trashy. 

Clever men, who are leaders in Cu. 
ban affairs today, have been read, 
ers in factories, among them some 
editors of note. 

Luz wharf ferry. Take Muelle Luz 
cars to Luz wharf and then right hand 
ferry to Regla. 

Western Railways of Havana. — 
Cristina station. Take Jesus del Mon- 
te cars. 

Cuba Railroad. — Villanueva station, 
see directions under United Railways 
of Havana. 

Marianao and Havana Railway. — 
Concha station. Take Principe cars. 

In 1898, when the United States oc- 
cupied the Island, it was at Santiago 
de Cuba that men landed and off 
Morro that warships congregated. 
The city was regularly beseiged 
Non-combatants fled, as they had 
done many times before into the sur- 
rounding country. The weary defile 
of women and children marched then, 
footsore and frightened, over the same 
routes fine macadamized road mark 
now, to Cuabitas, Cristo and El Caney. 
The history of famous engagements at 
El Caney and San Juan Hill is too 
recent to need repeating. Tourists 
now travel by guagua, carriage and 
automobile, to the heights which were 
harder to win in 1898. The old church 
at El Caney bears battle scars yet. 
The fort above the village is unroofed 
and its walls are crumbling; it houses 
only a monument to Americans and 
Cubans who lost their lives in its 
capture. Prom there the visitor over- 
looks a fair and peaceful country now. 

In years immediately following the 
I declaration of that peace, which has 
1 since prevailed uninterrupted here, 
Santiago de Cuba has been moderniz- 
ed to large extent. It is no longer 
pest hold of yellow fever but a 
clean city, sewered, and supplied with 
pure wat«r from a reservoir placed 
high in the cool, clean hills, which 
is augmented by numerous artesian 
wells, recently sunk by the national 
government. There is an electric 
street car line. In the leading hotels 
and shops English is spoken. Out- 
side the city macadamized roads radi- 
ate to points which are, to the tourist, 
of principal interest. In these im- 
provements Americans are proud to 
see the hand of other Americans who, 
from 1898 to 1902, especially, had to 
do with the shaping of Santiago, the 
modren city. 

This modernization, however, has 
merely removed things objectionable, 
while respecting the original and pic- 
turesque. Santiago, made neat and 
inviting, has succeeded in remaining 
Spanish as she was in the beginning, 
with a touch of French, English and 
American added, despite which influ- 
ences she holds to her own peculiar 
characteristics, and is today the most 
Cuban, at heart, of all Cuban provin- 
cial capitals. 





Owners of Cars Intended for Personal 
Use May Furnish Bond — "Tour- 
ist's Exemption." 

Tourists are permitted to bring into 
Cuba, free ot duty, automobiles for 
tlieir personal use while visiting the 
Island: The owner is required to 
make oath or affirmation, that the 
machine is not to be sold or rented, 
or made the basis of any business 
transaction while in this country; 
moreover, a bond to an amount not 
less than twice the duties the machine 
would incur, if imported for sale, is 
required, nor may a machine so ad- 
mitted remain in Cuba longer than six 
months under the foregoing exemp- 
tion, unless an extension of the privi. 
lege is obtained. 

The authority for this "tourists' ex- 
emption" is contained in customs 
circular 68, issued on February 23d, 
1903. It is based on Paragraph 330 
of the tariff, which admits free of 
duty all "articles of wearing apparel, 
toilet articles and articles for personal 
use." The automobile the tourist 
brings with him for his "personal 
use" in touring the country is classi- 
fied under the last mentioned head, 
ing. Customs collectors of the several 
ports are at liberty to determine the 
length of time over which the con- 
cession made in Circular 68 shall hold 
good; six months in the maximum, 
unless special authority extending it 
is obtained from the department of 
the treasury. 

The following is the form of the 
oath or affirmation to be filled out: 

"I, —(the name) — , tourist, having 

arrived in port , the day of 

the month oC , aboard the steam- 
er from the port of , do sol. 

emnly swear or affirm that the au. 

tomobile No. of horsepower, 

make , as declared on sheet , 

is my personal and exclusive proper- 
ty, for my personal use, and always 
take it and accessories necessary for 
its repair with me to every country 
I visit; I agree to reship it within 

a period of months. 

"I, furthermore, swear or affirm, 
that the said automobile is not to 
be sold or rented, nor to serve as the 
basis of any business transaction; I 
make myself liable to all responsibil. 
ity that rests on me in case I fail to 

fulfil the obligation taken upon me in 
this document. 

"In witness whereof, and in order 
to obtain the benefits of Paragraph 
330 of the Tariff, in accordance with 
Circular 68 of the Department of the 
Treasury, in the city of Havan.i, on 

the day of the month of , 

191—. (Signature.) 

The delegate collector before whom 
the tourist signs the foregoina: signs 
his name also, as witness. 

that saint as its patron and by law 
compelled its own residents and all 
the country people around about to 
do her homage) reads like a modren 
version of the Isrealites' sojourn in 
the wilderness inasmuch as for years 
its earliest inhabitants wandered hith- 
er and yon, led by priests at odds 
with each other, whose quarrels were 
reflected in the animosities between 
factions their followers constituted, 
until finally Santa Clara was estab- 

ing citizens of the district were warn- 
ed not to afford them shelter or suc- 
cor until they should have obeyed the 
mandate to reside in "Glorious Santa 
Clara." Later the verdict against Re- 
medies was rescinded, the town was 
recognized, rebuilt and given back 
its archives. Meanwhile Santa Clara, 
at first hardly as glorious as its 
name implies, was growing slowly and 
uneventfully from a cluster of mud- 
walled, palm-thatched huts. 


American Currency Is Official Money 
of Islsnd — Spanish Gold and 
Silver Largely Used. 

Cuba has no currency of its own 
coinage. The official money of the 
Republic is United States currency 
and all taxes and public debts are 
payable in v,ne same, except fees of 
registrars of property, which are col- 
lected in Spanish gold. In commer- 
cial circles (Wholesale) Spanish gold 
is the basis of calculation, and in the 
retail trade and in the country Span- 
ish silver ia almost entirely used, ex- 
cept in Santiago and parts of Cama- 
guey province where American money 
is used to cle exclusion of all others. 

United States currency is always at 
a premium over Spanish gold, but 
this premium fluctuates according to 
demand for Spanish gold and silver. 




The province of Santa Clara ranks 
second among Cuba's six in matter 
of population (457,431, census of 
1907); the capital city, "Glorious San- 
ta Clara," as its proper title runs 
(the western terminus of the Cuba 
Railroad), is eighth among those of 
the Island. 

The story of the founding of Santa 
Clara (which immediately adopted 

lished in its present location and the 
edict went forth that Remedies, its 
parent settlement, should be destroy- 
ed, as, in fact, it was when municipal 
authorities of Santa Clara rode over 
on ah appointed day and burned the 
humble residences of those persons 
who had not desired to take up their 
dwelling in the new town. They 
were driven out of their homes, for- 
bidden to rebuild them or cultivate 
their fields nearby, and all law-abid- 


The lime grows wild in all parts of 
Cuba and replaces the lemon entirely 
for domestic uses, making beverages, 
etc., as it is used without the curing 
which the lemon undergoes, and, eith- 
er in the ripe or green state, it is on 
the market during all seasons of the 

. 1 

One northerner that never visits 
Cuba Is Jack Frost. 

In the account of his first voyage 
which, in journal form, Christopher 
Columbus presented to the king and 
queen of Spam, under date of Tues- 
day, November 6, 1492, the Admiral 
relates how two men he had sent in- 
land into the district (probably) which 
is now Oriente province, through Na- 
varrete thinks it was Camaguey, in 
the course of their reconnaisance met 
men and women smoking "herbs, as 
they were accustomed to do." This 
is undoubtedly the very first mention 
of tobacco in history. Las Casas, 
when he came to write, in his His- 
tory of the Indies, from this particu- 
lar part of Columbus' diary, explains 
how the Indians smoked; it appears 
that they made cigars and called tli im 
by the name usual in Cuba today, that 
is tabacos. "I knew," the Good 
Clerigo adds, "Spaniards . . . who 
smoked, and when they were reproved 
for it, and told that it was a vice, 
they said they could not leave it off. I 
don't know what pleasure or profit 
they got out ot it." "Who," exclai;.is 
Navarrete (I., p. 51) "could foresee 
then that the consumption and use of 
tobacco wouH bevOinfl so ronmnin and 
general that this new and cingular 
vice should provide one of the richest 
sources of revenue to the state?" 





Noted for Its Palaces, Streets and 
Plazas, Colonnades, Towers 
and Monastries. 


Havana has been called the city ol 
palaces and the name Is a good one. 
Many houses are of immense size 
and cost enormous sums. Before the 
days of modern transportation, when 
the whistle of the locomotive was sel- 
dom heard and the whirl of the elec- 
tric motor was still unknown, and the 
patient ox knew no rival, rich sugar 
planters used Havana as their homes, 
leaving their estates in charge of 
a trusted manager, built here the 
most expensive mansions that money 
could buy. Such a home can be seen 
at the corner of Amistad and Reina 
streets. It was built by Miguel de 
Aldama, in his day Havana's richest 
citizen, his income was estimated at 
$3,000,000 annually. He spent nearly 
a half million dollars on this building 
in 1860, and the luxury of its fur- 
nishings became known far and wide, 
Aldama was a Cuban and a patriot, 
and when the revolution broke out 
here in 1868 and he was obliged to 
flee from the city to save his life. 
His house was broken into by Span- 
ish volunteers and ransacked, the 
vandals wrecking the handsome sta- 
tuary and slashing the costly paint- 
ings with their swords. Some of the 
most costly homes are to be found on 
the Prado, Paseo de Tacon streets 
and the suburbs, Cerro and Vedado. 

James Anthony Froude, writing in 
1887, said of the city: 

"Havana is a city of palaces, a city 
of streets and plazas, of colonnades 
and towers, and churches and monas- 
tries. The Spaniards built as they 
built in Castile; built with the same 
material, the white limestone which 
they found in the New World as in 
the old. The palaces of the nobles 
in Havana, the residences of the gov- 
ernor, the convents, the cathedral, are ' 
a reproduction of Burgos or Vallado- 
lid, as if by some Aladdin's lamp a 
Castilian city had been taken up and 
set down unaltered on the shore of 
the Caribbean sea The mag- 
nitude of Havana and the fullness of 
life there, entirely surprised me." 

These old descriptions still apply 
In great measure to the Havana of 

Tobacco in a number of different 
forms was commonly used in all their 
ceremonies by the aboriginal Indian 
peoples whom the Spanish discoverers 
found in possession of the West In- 
dian Islands. 

Its smoke was incense with which 
the priests accompanied their prayers 
to the gods; and with snuff, or pow. 
dered tobacco, they sometimes sprin. 

haling was as follows: Partially dried 
tobacco was first spread on a half, 
lighted brazier, after which a tube 
was placed in the smoke and the oth- 
er extremity, provided with two 
branches, inserted in the nostrils; the 
smoke was then snuffed up, mounting 
quickly to the brain. The user gen. 
erally succumbed to the narcotic and 
remained where he fell, stupefied. A 
cacique (chief) thus affected was 
raised by a woman and carried to bed. 


There are 193 sugar mills in Cuba, 
divided among the provinces as fol- 

Santa Clara 72 

Matanzas 57 

Oriente 29 

Havana 21 

Pinar del Rio 8 

Camaguey 6 

Total 193 



kled the heads of their idols. Their 
"medicine men" (boii) stupefied them, 
selves with this herb when they con- 
sulted oracles in divination, and by 
it they cured the sick in medicinal 

The process of inhaling the smoke 
through the nostrils is mentioned in 
several early acounts, and, accord, 
ing to many authorities, special tables 
on which the herb was placed, stood 
before their idols. The method of in- 


Pinar del Rio, 5,000 square miles. 
Havana, 2,772 square miles. 
Matanzas, 3,700 square miles. 
Santa Clara, 9,560 square miles. 
Camaguey, 10,500 square miles. 
Oriente, 12,468 square miles. 
Total area of Cuba, 44,000 square 


Come where the sunshine streams. 


Taxes in Cuba are very reasonable 
being equivalent to about 9.36 p = r 
cent of its earning capacity, the as- 
sessments being made on the renting 
value, on city and suburban proper- 
ties. Taxes on rural property are ap- 
proximately 6.50 per cent of the rent- 
ing value or income, out no taxes are 
collected on any of the unimproved 

The National Library was estab- 
lished by the first American govern- 
ment of intervention in 1902, and 
located at La Fuerza, and later moved 
to the Maestranza building on Chacon 
street. It is open to the public every 
day of the week, including Sunday, 
from eight in the morning untU five 
in the afternoon. 

The library was founded with 3,000 
volumes of all classes, collected and 
brought over from Paris and London, 
by its founder and director, Senor 
j Domingo Figarola-Caneda. The num- 
ber of books approximates 20,000, and 
is formed chiefly of works of history 
relating to Cuba in which respect it 
is said to be second only to the Brit- 
ish Museum. Among the collections 
is the library of the Count of Fernan- 
dina, including many rare examples 
of early printing, some of the docu- 
ments bearing dates of 1496, 1582 and 
1635. The books were richly bound 
by famous Paris binders and com- 
prise 4,000 volumes which cost $20,- 
000. Another library acquired was 
that of Vidal Morales y Morales, re- 
presenting twenty-five years' collect- 
ing of works relating to Cuba and 
Spanish-American history. It con- 
tains a Las Casas printed at Seville 
in 1552; Benzoni's "History of the 
New World," printed in 1565; the 
dramas of Heredia, the poems of Pla- 
cido, and other treasures of Cuban 
literature; in all containing 3,000 vol- 

Another valuable library open to 
the public is that of the Sociedad Eco- 
nomica, at 62 Dragones. This library 
contains a large collection of books 
and newspapers and old prints. 


Visitors sometimes wonder, when 
they see a man going along the street 
with a long pole in his hand upon 
which are displayed many pairs of 
shoes. This is a walking shoe store. 
The man goes about the city, fre- 
quenting places where men are em- 
ployed at such hours that buying at 
the regular shoe stores is inconven- 
ient. With these he does a good deal 
of business. The shoes are always of 
the cheapest makes, generally made 
in Have especially for day laborer's 






Famous Tobacco Region Now Acces- 
sible to Tourists — "Partldo" 
and "Vuelta Abajo." 

Tobacco is Cuba's second largest 
and her most famous crop. Like 
sugar cane, it is grown in every prov- 
ince, but wliereas to raise it was 
formerly the single agricultural enter- 
prise of the island, it is now the 
leading business of few districts out- 
side one province — Pinar del Rio. 

Pinar del Rio Is the western end 
of Cuba. Its southern coast, which 
the shallow Caribbean laps, rises 
gradually toward the Organo moun- 
tains, a range that dominates its 
northern part in all its length, from 
Mariel to Guane. Where the soil is 
suitable on this plain, but especially 
from Guira westward, along the line 
of the Western Railway, to the hills, 
is grown very excellent partldo to- 
baco — even on lands which a genera- 
tion ago produced sugar cane instead. 
In this district, for instance, are the 
famous Luis Mars vegas, at Alqulzar, 

where the advisability of producing 
tobacco under cheesecloth was first 
demonstrated; this system is now 
largely followed and from the railway 
line the traveler sees acres of cloth 
stretched taut on framework, through 
which protrude, sometimes, the tops 
of citrus fruit trees or leafy vener- 
able mangoes. Cheesecloth -shelters 
assure the development of large and 
perfect tobacco leaves, so much de- 
sired for cigar wrappers. 

The Organo mountains, beginning 
in little hills scattered here and there 
over the plain of Havana province, 
become a formidable sierra beyond 
Mariel, extending thence westward, 
broken by passes, to end in two steep 
sentinel peaks above the ancient 
town of Guane. In isolated locali ■ 
ties in these mountains (about San 
Diego de los Bafios, for instance, and 
in the Valley of Vinales) is grown an 
excellent tobacco classified as semi- 

Both San Diego and the Vinales 
valley are objective points of excep- 
tional attraction to tourists, quite 
aside from the additional interest 

their verdant tobacco fields, surronud- 
ing the thatched huts and barns of 
the native growers lend. San Diego 
is some fourteen miles north of the 
railway station of Paso Real, with 
which it is connected by good ma- 
cadamized road; there is regular om- 
nibus service. San Diego is a famous 
and fashionable health resort, because 
of mineral springs which gush from 
the banks of the river, which here 
comes down out of the mountains by 
way of The Portals. The bathhouses 
are mere wrecks of what they used 
to be, but so attractive is the curi- 
ous little town (there are really good 
hotels), so restful and invigorating its 
climate and all the outlook, the place 
retains its popularity despite this 
handicap. The Valley of Vinales is 
reached via government highway 
from the city of Pinar del Rio itself, 
the drive out, by automobile prefer- 
ably, constituting the most memor- 
able outing the visitor to Cuba can 
make while in this island. On ap- 
proaching the village of Vifiales the 
traveler finds himself gazing down 
upon it from the orow of a plateau. 

The town lies in the heart of a flat, 
fertile plain, cultivated to tobacco, 
out of which protrude peculinr mono- 
lithic mountains. Having passed 
through the town by way of the wide 
white government road, he enters the 
even more beautiful Vale of San Vi- 
cente by way of a narrow pass which 
is the only entrance to its lovely en- 
{ closure, and, later, leaves by as nar- 
j row an exit at the other side, follow- 
ing the road, still in the shadows of 
' the mountains which shut in the Vala 
as ramparts do a fortress, through a 
j forest of orchid-hung oaks, down to 
the sea at Esperanza, where Ihere is 
I little to interest him save the possi- 
bilities of a good "i'-h breakfast to 
be had there. The distance from 
Pinar del Rio city to Esperanza is 
about thirty miles; the trip is the, 
finest automobile drive in Cuba. 

At Consolacion del Sur th'' visitor; 
arriving in the west by rail enters the 
"genuine Vuelta Abajo," pronounced 
vo6-el-tah ah-bah-ho, these two 
words meaning literally the luiii or 
trip down, i.e., "down country," as all 
the country west of Havana was 

I called before it was constituted into 
a separate province or acquired a 
name of its own. Technically used by 
I tobacco men, however, Vuelta Aba- 
jo means Pinar del Rio province west 
of Consolacion del Sur to the sea on 
every shore, and especially south of 
I the Organo mountains. The exact 
boundaries of the sacred territory are 
1 elastic; every veguero (tobacco 
grower) wishes to stretch them to 
embrace his fields though not neces- 
sarily those of his next aeis'^bor. In 
this district the very best tobacco the 
world knows is produced; manufac- 
tured into cigars in Havana (and no- 
where else) it constitutes real Ha 
banos — the delight of connoiseurs and 
courts! Here and there, to be sure, 
are patches of malanga, an indigen- 
ous tuber deemed edible by natives, 
sweet potatoes, corn, cane and yuca; 
from the latter starch is manufac- 
tured for domestic and even for for- 
eign trade. Maize and rlc? fields ire 
common but their output is not suf- 
ficient for even local consumption. 
The heaviest item of transportation 
on Western Railway Is foodstuffs. 






There Are Valuable Deposits of the 
Precious Metal Worked in the 
Vicinity of Holguin. 

Gold mines ' are being worked in 
Cuba with success. Up to the present 
there is no indication that the gold 
yielding area will rival that of the 
Yukon or of the golden days of Cali- 
fornia. There are good paying ores, 
however which with modern machin- 
ery yield a good profit, and any time 
the valuable metal may be found in 
Jarge quantities. 

Santiago province up to the present 
gives the greatest mineral promise of 
the island. Pinar del Rio province, 
however, is rich in various ores, but 
has never been worked or prospected 
as has Santiago. In the latter prov- 
ince are found many workable depos- 
its of copper, iron, manganese and 
gold. Only a few have been develop- 
ed. The gold mines which are being 
worked systematically and which are 
giving results, are some twenty miles 
south of Gibara, near Holguin. In this 
district gold seems to have been tak- 
en out in greater or lesser quantities 
ever since the island was discovered, 
though the old Spanish discoverers 
never obtained very great quantities 
of it. 

A prospecter who has searched for 
claims from Yukon to Panama and 
Cuba, found near Aguas Claras what 

is now called the Santiago Mine. The 
mineral laws of Cuba allow the one 
finding the mineral, even though it 
is on another's land, to denounce it 
as his own. The law does not require 
that a claim once registered shall be 
worked, and thus they are sometimes 
handed down to several generations. 
This prospector found that the vein 
he had discovered had already been } 
denounced many years before, but he t 
sought the present owners and made ; 
an agreement with them to allow him 
to work the claim on a 20 per cent 
royalty basis. He then took a quart 
jar of coarse gold under his arm and 
went to New York to find capitalists 
to back him in his enterprise. He 
found a young New Yorker who 
agreed to furnish $75,000 for a mill 
and development, provided he was 
given about four- fifths of the com- 
pany's stock, the mill was equipped 
with a crusher, a Chilean mill, shak- 
ing plates and tables, of a kind which 
a practical metallurgist would not 
have ordered. The mill which would 
not have cost $20,000 in New Jersey 
cost $60,000 in Cuba. This outlay to- 
gether with more required by building 
waterworks, pumps and hoists ab- 
sorbed all the original money put into 
the enterprise and more, hence when 
the company started it had a big debt 
to overcome. No arrangements were 
made to empound the tailings, conse- 
quently the people on the next lower 
properties were able to make large 

sums by washing the waste. In fact 
they made more than did the stock- 
holders. Had the machinery been of 
the proper kind, however, the mill 
would have paid far greater profits 
and the example goes to show the 
care that should be taken in such en- 

The rock carrying the gold has 
been leached beyond any semblance 
of the original, which judging from 
the adjacent properties approximates 
a quartz-felsite porphyry. This gray 
rock has been intruded between walls 
of serpentine wherever in the vicinity 
the rock has been shattered. Al- 
though subsequent movements have 
faulted the felsite dyke locally, the 
line along which the gold is found for 
several miles is practically northeast 
by southwest. 

In the gold belt in the vicinity of 
the gold bearing out crops and in 
ditches after each rainstorm, gold col- 
ors can be obtained. The soil is sharp 
and wide areas of talus cover the 
fields, so that beyond grass and 
shrubs vegetation does not flourish. 
Mining men have noticed that near 
gold deposits there is a gritty feeling 
on the shoe soles and in the Santiago 
gold field this geological peculiarity 
is properly developed. 

Over $250,000 have been taken from 
the Santiago Mine but the dividends 
have been small mainly on account 
of the lack of proper machinery and 
the 20 per cent royalty. Other mines 

using good machinery are making an 
exceedingly good profit. The locality 
in the gold district of Cuba is very 
beautiful Holguin being 500 feet above 
the sea level, and one of the oldest 
towns on the island. 

Asbestos of the variety known as 
Chrysotile is found near the mines. 
The life of the material seems to 
have been sapped from it by the cli- 
mate and solutions so that it was re- 
converted into brittle rock at the out- 
crop, although it retained its fibrous 

Traces of gold have recently been 
found at Luyano a suburb within the 
municipal district of Havana. A large 
area of land including three claims, 
have been filed recently with the gov- 




President and Senators Must Be Na. 
tive Born Cubans — Representa- 
tives May Be Naturalized. 

El Principe or Castillo del Principe 
(Port of the Prince) is on the crest 
of a high hill overlooking the city 
on the west. It is an irregular bas- 
tion work surrounded by a deep moat, 
and commands the city and harbor 
and coast and inland approaches. The 
fine view obtained from Principe well 
repays for the climb from the foot of 
the hill at the terminus of the El 
Principe line of cars. 

The walls of Havana were destroyed 
in 1886, a week's celebration being 
held in honor of the event. 

Havana is the capital of the Re- 
public. The Congress consists of the 
Senate and House of Representatives. 
The Senate building is on O'Reilly 
street, facing the Plaza de Armaa. 
Each one of the six provinces of Pa- 
nar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, San- 
ta Clara, Camaguey and Oriente, send 
senators, who are elected for terms of 
eight years. A senator must be a na- 
tive Cuban and must have attained 
the age of thirty-five. The House 
meets in a building temporarily used 
for the purpose on Oficio street, near 
the Machina; a new Hall of Repre- 
sentatives has been planned. There 
is one Representative for each 25,000 
individuals and for an additional frac- 
tion over 12,500. The term is four 
years. A Representative must be a 
native born Cuban or a naturalized 
Cuban, who has resided in Cuba at 
least eight years from his naturali- 
zation, and must have attained the 
age of twenty.five. The President 
of the Republic, elected for a term of 
four years, must be a native born 
Cuban, or one who has served in the 
Cuban army in its wars of independ- 
ence for at least ten years, and must 
have attained the age of forty. 







Cuba's Distinguished Vice President 
Speal<s Eioquently of Great In- 
fluence of Ship on History. 

The details of the awful tragedy 
which sent the battleship Maine to 
the bottom of Havana harbor, snuff- 
ing out the lives of 257 American 
sailors, are known to nearly every one 
and there is no need repeating them 
here. The historical effects of this 
tragedy, however, will ever be a 
source of interest in the future as well 
as the past, to Cuba and to the United 
States. It is interesting, therefore, 
to produce the oration pronounced on 
the wreck of the Maine, at what was, 
perhaps, the last memorial service 
held upon it, by one of Cuba's most 
brilliant and gifted orators. Dr. Al- 
fredo Zayas, vice president of this 
Republic. Dr. Zayas spoke in Span- 
ish and it is impossible to transmit 
In translating all the fire, the energy 
and brilliancy of the original expres- 
sions, but the oration in English will 
not fail to be of interest. 

Dr. Zayas said: 

"Ladies and Gentlemen: We are 
gathered in this place, and perhaps 
for the last time, beside the wreck of 
what was once a powerful machine 
of war of the great North American 
nation; in order to commemorate a 
memorable date in the history of 

three nations: in the history of the 
great Republic of the United States 
of America, in the history of the old 
Spanish nationality, and in the his- 
tory of the young Republic of Oiba. 

"A day like today, and in this place, 
and during hours of the night a for- 
midable crash and a sudden flame 
which illuminated space, carried to 
the minds of all those who heard that 
formidable noise, and to all those who 
saw that dazzling blaze, that some- 
thing epoch-making in the political 
history of those nations was near. 
On that night, thirteen years ago, the 
Maine was blown up in the port of 
Havana, where its wreck has remain- 
ed until now, and where this year, as 
in years past, come those who under 
the glorious folds of the American 
flag fought in the war with Spain, and 
with them many whose hearts enter- 
tain and uphold sentiments of piety 
and commiseration in the face of the 
human calamities, to shed one more 
tear and to revive the memory, that 
is due the remains of those sailors, 
of those men who succumbed by vir- 
tue of that sorrowful happening and 
forever left the earth and passing 
happiness, and who have slept, either 
in the bottom of the waters of our 
harbor, or buried by pious hands in 
the place destined for the last sleep 
of men. 

"This is a pious duty in which may 
be associated all men, whatever may 
be their nationality, their race or ori- 

gin, because in the confraternity of 
the whole humanity, after the passing 
of the enslaving torrent of the excited 
human passions, we may as well rec- 
ognize ourselves progency of the same 
origin, and clasp our hands, deploring 
as a misfortune to humanity that 
which caused the destruction of liv- 
ing beings, leaving behind them a 
trail of tears at this homes. 

"We have complied, therefore, with 
a duty of piety, of fraternity, by these 
services, and by casting fragrant 
flowers in the bay of Havana, and 
inclining reverently before the ban- 
ner, which with its glory, covers 
those remains and makes more sweet 
the slumber of those that sleep un- 
der its protecting shade. 

"We, who represent Cuba, do not 
come here with our souls full of ran- 
cor, nor with remembrances that may 
produce the least wound in the hearts 
that beat with ours under the heaven 
of our country. Each epoch has its 
passionate moments, and, if on the 
day the Maine was buried in the wa- 
ters of the harbor of Havana, that 
unfortunate occurrence, always la- 
mentable and sorrowful, caused dif- 
ferent sentiments, according to the 
persons that felt them; now at the 
end of the years, it only remains for 
us to shed tears of piety to send fer- 
vent prayers, to ask peace for the 
dead, and long for glory to the three 
nations which are united in history 
by the event that we commemorate. 

From our lips there should not come 
words, that have the savor of bitter- 
ness; free are our hearts and souls 
from rancor and old ire, and as on 
any other catastrophe of humanity let 
us Cubans be gathered here, as you 
Americans- from the North, to mingle 
our prayers and also cast over the 
graves of those who here died, our 
best flowers, typifying the fragrance 
of our remembrance. 

"The wreck of the Maine will dis- 
appear from our bay, transported pos- 
sibly to the nation to which the pow. 
erful vessel belonged; but the re- 
membrance of the explosion never 
will be forgotten and will outlive us, 
because it marks with the furore of 
Its sudden blaze and its thunderous 
crash, an era in the history of Ameri- 
ca, where was determined the eman- 
cipation of the Hispano-American 
territories, the cessation of Spanish 
sovereignty in America, and it may 
be said that it was the dawn and 
1 birthday of the Republic of Cuba, un- 
j der the protecting, noble and gener- 
ous aegis of the great Republic of the 
United States. 

"I had the opportunity of being in 
the city of Havana the night of the 
explosion of the Maine, passing acci- 
dentally, as it were, through my 
country; and I can assure you, that 
all of us that took thought of the ex- 
traordinary significanje of that hap- 
pening, an internal sensation moved 
us, and a magic vision made us fore- 

see a smiling future, an aureole of 
liberty and independence that fore- 
told days of glory for our country; 
but that natural sentiment has never 
made me suppose, not even at the first 
moment, that a cunning hand or in- 
famous treachery sunk the Maine in 
the waters of Havana harbor. Un- 
luckily happenings of this kind — we 
do not know the invisible hand that 
j makes them — take place at the pre- 
i destined moment, the pysehological 
instant in history to change the fate 
of the people; an invisible hand that 
may be called Providence or chance, 
ordained that the last drop, let us 
say, in the overflowing vase of the 
excitement of the American people 
who contemplated the continuation of 
a cruel and hard war, and the explo- 
sion of the Maine was followed by an- 
other explosion of the popular Ameri - 
can sentiment that produced the war 
between the United States of Ameri- 
ca and the Spanish nation; a war 
that was full of heroism on both sides 
and which ended with the consecra- 
tion of the young Republic of Cuba." 


No tourist should fail to spend one 
evening in the park when the nights 
iare delightfully fresh and cool, and 
the scene as the people parade round 
and round, all in their finery, exhal- 
ing clouds of cigarette smoke and 
strong whiffs of perfumery, is fas. 
cinating in the extreme to the tran. 
sient visitor. 





Catholic Is Dominant Creed — Protest- 
ant Churches Only Established 
Since Spanish.American War. 

Under Spanish rule the Roman 
Catholic Church was the established 
church of Cuba; public services of 
any other church were prohibited. In 
a circular issued by the Spanish Gov- 
ernor to induce immigration, it was 
provided, "no others but Roman 
Catholics can be inhabitants of the 
island." The Protestant Bible was 
interdicted in the Custom House. The 
British Government made repeated 
but futile efforts to secure for its sub- 
jects living in Havana permission to 
build a chapel for Protestant wor- 

So late as 1898, when the funeral 
of the Maine victims was held by the 
city authorities in the Governor's 
Palace, and Captain Sigsbee request, 
ed of the Bishop of Havana that the 
Protestant burial service might be 
read over the Protestant dead, the 
request was politely declined, the 
Bishop expressing regret for his In- 
ability to comply with it. All that, 
Captain Sigsbee could do was "to 
read the service a part at a time as 
opportunity offered, chiefly in the 
carriage on the way to the cemetery 
and afterward in the hotel." The 
Spanish-American war changed all 
that. There are now in Havana vari- 
ous Protestant denominations. 

The churches and religious orders 
were formerly very rich, possessing 
sugar plantations and coffee estates 
which had been bequeathed to them, 
and drawing vast revenues from lands 
on which mortgages had been laid 
in their favor; the French Encyclo- 
paedia once reviled the churches of 
Cuba because they were "so revolt, 
ingly rich." In many instances the 
estates of the monks were long ago 
confiscated and expropriated to the 
use of the State; the monasteries of 
San Agustin and Santo Domingo 
were converted into Government 

Church festivals irere observed 
with much pomp. At one period, it 
is recorded, 525 festivals were cele- 
brated annually in the twenty-nine 

establishments the city then pos- 
sessed, besides vespers, Ave Marias, 
masses and sermons. The Spanish 
historian Arrette affirms that in 
pomp and solemnity the functions of 
the church were unrivalled by any in 
Europe, and he tells us that more 
wax was consumed in candles for the 
churches of Havana in one month 
than in other cities for the whole 
year. Feast days were marked in the 
calendar as half cross days to be ob- 

Week were elaborate; religious pro- 
cessions filled the streets; the Holy 
Sepulchre was borne in state by de- 
votees jealous to perform the service; 
effigies of Christ and the Virgin and 
the images of the saints from the 
churches were carried through the 

"The next day, which was Good 
Friday, about twilight, a long pro. 
cession came trailing through the 
streets under my window, bearing an 

1904, there was discussed in the Cu- 
ban Congress a law forbidding reli. 
gious processions in the streets. 

The ecclesiastical government con- 
sists of the Archbishop of Santiago 
and the Bishopric of Havana. The 
Cathedral has already been alluded 
to, some other churches may be noted. 

San Agustin, at Cuba and Amar- 
gura streets, formerly a monastery 
built in 1G08, is the oldest church in 
the city. Among the decorations of 


served with special religious serv. 
ices, and whole cross days, on which 
business was wholly laid aside. In no 
other country than this land of 
mafiana — tomorrow, by-and-by — • 
could such a system have obtained. 
An American in Cuba once recorded 
his complaint, "This is St. Joseph's 
Day, the patron saint of the collector 
of the port, so he refuses any goods 
to be landed on this day." 
The public ceremonies of Holy 

image of the dead Christ lying upon 
a cloth of gold. It was accompanied 
by a body of soldiers holding their 
muskets reversed, and a band play- 
ing plaintive tunes; the crowds un- 
covered their heads as it passed." — • 
William CuUen Bryant. 

But this has passed away, along 
with many other of the old customs 
which were picturesque and interest- 
ing, but not in keeping with the spirit 
of the present day. In November 

the walls are to be noted the Stations 
of the Cross in twelve alto-relievos. 

Santa Catalina, on O'Reilly street, 
at the corner of Compostela, built in 
1698, contains the bones of the mar- 
tyrs Celestino and Lucida, which 
were brought from Rome. 

Santo Domingo at O'Reilly and Mer- 
caderes streets, was a monastery of 
the Dominicans. In the sacristy are 
preserved portraits of the Count and 
Countess of Casa Bayona, by whose 

liberality the monastery was founded 
in 1578. 

La Merced, at Cuba and Merced 
streets, is the wealthiest and most 
aristocratic church in the city, and .a 
fashionable congregation may be seen 
at its Sunday morning mass. There 
is 1 Cull orchestra. The church was 
built in 1746, and rebuilt in 1792; and 
the interior has been remodeled and 
richly decorated within recent years. 

"The Admiral Don Christopher Co- 
lumbus and the Spanish Army, being 
possessed of the Oerro de la Vega, a 
place on the Spanish island, erected 
on it a cross, on whose right arm 
on the 2d of May, 1493, in the night, 
there appeared with her most precious 
Son the Virgin Our Lady of Mercy. 
The Indians who occupied the island, 
as soon as they saw Her, drew their 
arrows and shot at Her; but as the 
arrows could not pierce the sacred 
wood, the Spaniards took courage, 
and falling upon the same Indians, 
killed a great number of them. And 
the person who saw this wonderful 
prodigy was the V. R. F. Juan." 

Belen Church, on Compostela street, 
at the corner of Luz, was built by 
Bishop Diego de Compostela in 1704. 
It takes its name from Santa Maria 
de Belen (Our Lady of Bethlehem), 
patroness in Spain of the Franciscan 
order of Jeronymites. The church 
and monastery, and free school in 
connection, were maintained by the 
Franciscan monks for nearly a cen. 
tury, and then the buildings were tak- 
en by the Government for use as bar- 
racks. In 1853 they were given to 
the Jesuits, who formed schools, es- 
tablished the College of Belen, set up 
an observatory reputed to be the best 
organized in Latin-America, collect, 
ed a library rich in prints and draw- 
ings illustrating Cuban history, and 
formed a museum of native woods 
and natural history specimens. James 
Anthony Fronde wrote of them in 
1887, when they had a school of 400 
pay pupils and hundreds of free: 
"They keep on a level with the age; 
they are men of learning; they are 
men of science; they are the Royal 
Society of Cuba." The Belen arch 
spanning Calle del Sol is one of the 
picturesque bits of Havana. The col- 
umns and ceiling of the interior of 
the church are to be noted. Over the 
high altar is a Holy Family by Ri- 





Both Streets Are the Delight of Vis- 
itors Who Like to Shop — Pe- 
culiar Names of Shops. 

The sliopper's delight in Cuba are 
Obispo and O'Reilly streets. There 
the visitor who wishes to lay in a 
supply of rare laces or rich silks can 
do so at prices which appear re- 
markable to people accustomed to 
United States' prices. The streets are 
so narrow that wheeled yehicles are 
permitted to pass in one direction 
only. The impression of narrow- 
ness is intensified by the heavy cor- 
nices and overhanging balconies, and 
the signs which are suspended above 
spanning the street; while in the 
sunny hours awnings are stretched 
from roof to roof completely cover- 
ing the street and creating a sub, 
dued yellow-toned light or dusk, 
which gives the street with the suc- 
cession of open shops and their varied 
stocks of goods exposed to view the 
air of an Eastern bazaar. There is 
also, as one looks down Obispo street 
from the Albear Park, something 
reminiscent of the Midway. Calle 
Obispo is Bishop street. When the 
Conde de O'Reilly came to Cuba in 
1763, and named the streets of the 
city, which before that time bad been 
unnamed he called this one O'Reilly 
after himself. 

A peculiarity of shops in Havana is 
that as a rule they do not bear the 
names of the proprietors but are 
called by some fanciful name, as Las 
Ninfas (The Nymphs), La Esperanza 
(Hope), Truth, The Fair, Modesty, 
Patience, Galatea, La Diana, or some 
other. It is true that our illustrations 
do not illustrate this peculiarity, but 
observation will show that the signs 
like those in the pictures are not the 
rule, but the exception; they are 
American innovations, not the char- 
acteristic way of the Cubans. 

The Cubans have a taste for prodi- 
gality in grandiloquent or pretty 
names. Eevry shop, the most num. 
ble, has its name. They name the 
shops after the sun and moon and 
stars; after gods, and goddesses, 
demi-gods and heroes; after fruits 
and flowers, gems and precious 
stones; after favorite names of wom- 
en, with pretty fanciful additions; and 
after all alluring qualities, all de- 

lights of the senses, and all pleasing 
affections of the mind. The wards 
of jails and hospitals are each known 
by some religious or patriotic desig- 
nation; and twelve guns in the Mor. 
ro are named for the Apostles. Every 
town has the name of an apostle or 
saint, or of some sacred subject. The 
full name of Havana, in honor of 
of Columbus, is San Cristobal de la 
Habana; and that of Matanzas is San 
Carlos Aloazar de Matanzas. — R. H. 
Dana, 1859. 

Another time-honored custom of 
the Cuban merchant is to eat his 
meals in his shop. If we pass along 
the street at breakfast time, 11 
o'clock, and look in at the shops, we 
shall see business suspended, the ta- 
ble spreiad in the middle of the room, 
and the shopkeeper and his clerks 
sitting down at their meal In the 
midst of their goods. The custom is 
universal throughout Cuba with the 
Spanish shopkeepers. The clerks, also 
Spaniards, unmarried, live in the shop 
and board with their employers. They 
know no other dining room, nor par- 
lor nor living room than the shop. 

In Calles Obispo and O'Reilly the 
tourist will find many articles suit- 
able to take home for souvenirs. In 
the old days when the toreador was 
the hero of Havana, everybody bought 
bullfight fans; the bull ring has long 
since been abolished, but people still 
buy bullfight fans; they are inex. 
pensive and may be used for room 
decorations. In the shops devoted 
partly or exclusively to fans, there 
is a wide range of choice, as to 
styles and prices; the cost runs from 
a few cents to a few hundred dol- 
lars. Among the most expensive are 
those with sticks of carved ivory in- 
laid with gold and mounted with small 
oval mirrors on the outer sides and 
the fans hand-painted or embroidered. 
The use of the fan in Cuba is uni- 

"There is one article without which 
the Cuban lady would not feel at 
home for a single moment; it is the 
fan, which is a positive necessity to 
her, and she learns its coquettish and 
graceful use from learly childhood, 
formed of various rich materials, it 
glitters in her hand like a gaudy but. 
terfly, now half, now wholly shading 
her radiant face, which quickly peeks 
out again from behind the shelter like 
the moon from out a gilded cloud. 

The little article (always rich and ex- 
pensive), perfectly indispensable in 
a Cuban lady's costume, in her hands 
seems almost to speak; she has a 
witching flirt with it that expresses 
scorn; a graceful wave of complais- 
ance, an abrupt closing of it that in- 
dicate vexation or anger; a gradual 
and cautious opening of its folds that 
signifies reluctant forgiveness; in 
short, the language of the fan in a 
Cuban's hand is an adroit and expres- 
sive pantomime that requires no for. 
eign interpreter." 

There are for the women mantillas, 
Cuban drawn work hand-made laces 
and embroideries; and for the men 
there are walking sticks of mahog- 
any, acana ebony, royal palm or oth- 
er native woods, or of a shark's ver- 
tebrae; Panama hats (jipi japi), or 
the immense headgear of the Cuban 
countrymen, called the guajiro, high- 
crowned and broad.brimmed, turned 
up in front and turned down behind. 
It is of braided palm leaves, and it 
we go into the country we ms.y per- 
haps see a native Cuban hat iactory. 
The guajiro makes a good waste bas- 
ket for papers. Among other native 
productions are belts and pocketbooks 
made of the skin of the maja, a harm- 
less Cuban snake of the constrictor 
species, which sometimes grows to a 
length of twenty feet or more. Then 
there is some fascinating feather 
work, picturing flowers, birds and 
cock fights; with photographs and 
colored views, jewelry, native pre- 
serves of guava jelly and marmalade 
limes, mammey, sour-sop, cocoanut, 
orange, almond, mango, zapote and 
other fruits peculiar to the tropics. 




Was Scene of Execution of Colonel 
Crittenden and His Fifty Ken- 
tucklans in 1851. 

Atares Castle occupies a round hill 
at the head of the harbor. 111 feet 
above sea level. The isolated site, 
commanding position and picturesque 
outline make it one of the most con- 
spicuous objects in the vicinity of 
Havana; it is seen from the town, 
the ships in the harbor, and the ram- 
parts of Cabana. The fortress is a 
small bastioned work, built in 1763. 
67, after the restoration of Cuba by 
the British. For some act of the 

garrison a century ago it enjoyed the 
distinction of being the only fortress 
which was permitted to fly a silken 
flag. The Kentuekian, Crittenden, 
and fifty of his men of the Lopez ex- 
pedition in 1851 were imprisoned in 
Atares, and it was on the slope of 
the hill overlooking the harbor that 
they were executed. The castle has 
been converted into a jail. On the 
slopes in great letters formed of can- 
non balls and flower beds are seen 
the names of Marti and other heroes 
of the Cuban struggle for independ- 


Those who have been here in win- 
ter all want to come again. 

Baseball is played on the grounds 
of the Almendares Club on the Paseo 
de Tacon, opposite the Botanical Gar_ 
den. Principe cars pass the gate. The 
grounds of the Havana Baseball Club 
are at Vedado. The most important 
games are played on Sunday after- 
noons, and are announced in the Ha- 
vana Post. 

The law used to require plantation 
owners to own a dog to guard live- 
stock; a cat, to kill rats; and to keep 
a cross set up before the door, as a 
sign that the Catholic religion was 






Head of the Republic Resides Wliere 
Formerly Spanisli Captain Gen- 
erals Were Arbiters of Life. 

Where once Spanish Captain 
Generals were the arbiters of life 
and death of all who lived in Cuba, 
there lives now the head of the Cu- 
ban Republic, the President. It 
formerly ranked as one of the fin. 
est buildings in the city, hut is now 
fast falling into decay. A new presi- 
dential palace is to be erected by 
the government to cost in the neigh- 
borhood of a million dollars. The 
present building was built in 1834 
during the administration of Tacon, 
and occupies an entire block, with 
colonnaded facade extending the en- 
tire east side of the Plaza de Armas. 
The main entrance Is of marble rich- 
ly carved, the central feature of the 
decoration being a cartouche bear, 
ing the Spanish arms. The large pa- 
tio is surrounded by arcades, with 
grilled balconies and airy galleries; 
In the center, amid a mass of shrub- 
bery and tropical flowers, stands the 
well known statue of Columbus. The 
construction of the building is very 
massive, with heavy floor beams of 
acana and jocuma. The interior was 
partly remodeled by the Americans; 
The decoration of the Mayor's room 
was flnr^r. 1 — Q. the wainscoting 
Cuban wood known 
Palace is the of- 
the President, and 
.-.yuiaius also the offices of the Mayor 
and other city officials, and the hall 
of the Ayuntamiento or City Coun- 

The President's apartments are on 
the third floor, reached by broad mar- 
ble stairways with large mirrors in 
gold frames on the landings. Of the 
three state reception rooms, one is 
furnished in white and blue, another 
in crimson, with the escutcheons of 
Spain and Havana over the doors and 
windows; and a third smaller one 
which under the old regime was the 
throne room, and is now the special 
reception room in which are received 
the guests. Among the crimson up- 
holstered chairs in the room is one 
which is surmounted by a gilt crown. 
It was formerly the throne chair, and 
stood on a dais in this room. Back 

of the throne room is the chapel, 
whose robes and altar cloths are rich 
embroideries, done by the hands of 
devout Cuban women. 

As the headquarters of the gov- 
ernment, the Palace represented 
Spanish authority, and was identi- 
fied with Spain's rule of Cuba for 
good or for ill; it was fitting then 
that the final act in the surrender of 
that authority and the abandonment 
of that rule should take place with, 
in the Palace walls. It was here that 
on January 1, 1899, Lieutenant Gener- 
al Adolfo Jimines Castellanos, the last 
representative of Spanish dominion 
over Cuba, formally yielded up his 
office to the representatives of the 
United States, and thus ended Spain's 
tenure in Cuba. General William 
Ludlow, then commanding the De- 
partment of Havana, records the mo- 
mentous incident in his report to the 
Secretary of War. 

Three years and five months later 
a yet more memorable event took 
place here, when the Palace of 
Spain's Captains General witnessed 
the establishment of a republican 
form of government. On the 20th 
of May, 1902 — the day whose anni- 
versary Cuba observes as her nation, 
al holiday — the allotted task of the 
United States having been accomp- 
lished in the island, the American 
flag was lowered from the staff on 
the Palace and the flag of Cuba took 
its place. The Republic was estab- 
lished at 12 o'clock noon of that 
day. The transfer of government, 
formally declared in a document 
written by President Roosevelt and 
received by President Palma, was 
made in the main room of the Palace. 
During the ceremony the United 
States troops in the Plaza presented 
arms as the American flag was low- 
ered; and when the flag of the Re- 
public was raised, the guns of the 
United States cruiser Brooblyn 
joined with those of the Cabana in 
its salute. 

♦- _ 

Onions. — The Cuban is extremely 
partial to the Spanish onion and that 
of the Canary Islands, both of which 
will prosper in Cuba. As this is a 
purely agricultural proposition It 
should furnish an excellent field, pro- 
vided storage facilities are furnished, 
for onions are said to deteriorate like 
potatoes in Cuba. 


In and Around This Narrow Place 
Was IVIade the Greater Part of 
Cuba's History. 

The Plaza de Armas is important 
because in and around it has been 
made the greater part of Cuba's his- 
tory. To one side of it Is the place 
where mass was first said when the 
city of Havana was founded. On an- 
other side is the Presidential Palace, 
where Spanish governor-generals for 
miany years ruled the destinies of the 
island. On a third side is the Fuerza 
fort built to defend the city of Havana 
and the first fortification the city 
boasted when it was but a growing 

A group of interesting points which 
are near together and may be visited 
in connection, are clustered about the 
Plaza de Armas. These are the Pal- 
ace, Templete, Fuerza, Cathedral, and 
the shopping streets Obispo and 
O'Reilly. Near the Plaza is the Ca. 
balleria Wharf. 

It was the practice of the Spaniards 
when they laid out a new town to re- 
serve a space in the center as a public 
square, about which the military and 
civil buildings might cluster, and the 
open field of which might be used as 
a drill ground for the soldiery, thus 
giving to it the name of Plaza de 
Armas, or place of arms. In keeping 
with such a custom, this open square 
was reserved for a plaza when the 
city was founded in 1519. Here we 
get back to the beginning of Havana. 
On the east of the square nearer the 
shore of the bay still stands a ceiba 
tree descended from the celba which 
originally shaded the spot when the 
founders of the city held the first 
mass. On the north is the old fort 
ress La Fuerza, well named the "cor- 
ner-stone of Havana." On the south 
wias established the soldiers' barrack 
and on the west was the first church 
The church was demolished in 1777, 
to make way for the new residence 
of the Governor.General. In the wall 
the building on the corner ©f Obispo 
street is a marble table which was 
removed from the old church, com- 
memorating the death in 1667 of 
Dona Maria Cepero, who was killed 
by the accidental discharge of a sol- 
dier's arquebus while she was kneel- 

ing at her devotions in front of one 
of the altars. 

The square is still the administra- 
tive center of Havana and Cuba. The 
Palace, in addition to being the Pres 
ident's residence, contains the hall 
of the city government, and various 
civil offices; the Senate building 
fronts the Plaza on the north; in La 
Fuerza are kept the archives. Near by 
are the departments of the govern- 
ment and the Hall of Representatives. 
The park is laid out with flower beds, 
and there are royal palms and laurel 
trees. In the center is a marbl-a 
statue of Ferinand VII. There was 
a peculiar propriety in setting up hero 
in front of the Palace the effigy of the 

Spanish king in whose troubled rule 
the royal decree was issued whicb 
gave to the Captain-General of Cuba 
"all the powers of governors of cities 
in a state of siege." 

In old Havana, crowded within the 
city walls, the Plaza de Armas was 
the favorite pleasure resort of the 
Havanese in the evening. 

Banks a few years ago were almost 
unknown in Cuba except in a few of 
the larger cities, but now they are 
to be found in numbers in every town 
of importance. 

There is no richer soil than that of 






Occupies One of the Most Promi- 
nent Sites of tlie City — Often 
Tal<en for President's Palace 

Near the foot of the Prado, and 
occupying one of the most prominent 
sites in the city, is the immense yel- 
low building of the Havana Carcel, 
which is not infrequently m'staken 
by tourists for the Palace. It is used 
as a Carcel or city jail, with entrance 
on the Prado, and formerly as a Pre- 
sidio or penitentiary for th-e island, 
entrance on Zulueta street, and also 
contains various court rooms. It was 
built in 1839 by Governor-General 
Tacon, chiefly by convict labor of 
chain gangs made up of runaway 
slaves, white malefactors and Carlist 
prisoners from Spair. ; and it is re- 
corded that Tacon linanced the un. 
dertaking with certain public funds 
which, before his time, had been di- 
verted by dishonest officials. The 
building is 300 by 240 feet, and sur- 
rounds a large Interior court or pa- 
tio, which is filled with shrubbery. 
It has room for 5,000 men; there have 
been at times 1,000 prisoners within 
its walls. There were 600 here when 
the Americans came to Havana, many 
of whom had been incarcerated for 
years without trial. One hundred of 
this class were released, and->ot sixty 
others the sentences were commuted. 
The Americans cleaned up the dread, 
fully filthy building, and introduced 
many reforms of administration. The 
Carcel contains the garrote, which ,s 
the Cuban instrument of capital pun- 
ishment. It consists of a semi-cir- 
cular iron band or collar, which fits 
the front part of the victim's neck; 
and has in the back of it a screw, 
which, working on the principle of 
the screw of a letter.copying press, 
presses against the vertebra near the 
junction of the skull. A sudden turn 
of the screw crushes the bone and 
spinal cord, and death is instantane- 
ous. While the garrote is held in 
universal infamy, largely for the rea- 
son that so many martyrs of the Cu- 
ban cause were executed by it. It is 
nevertheless a merciful instrument of 
death. Garroting is pronounced ty 
physicians to be more humane than 
hanging. Executions formerly were 
public spectacles. 
To turn to lighter things, it may 

be recalled that in the old days m 
Havana malefactors were scourged in 
public, the victim being paraded 
through the streets, mounted back, 
wards on a mule, and whipped at 
various designated points in the city 
until his full complement of lashes 
had been received. 

When Tacon chose this site for his 
prison, the spot was far outside the 
city wall, and near-by, wbere the 
Students' Memorial now stands 
was the place of public execution. 
But however remote from the life 
of Havana the Carcel may have been 
when it was established, the growth 
of the town and extension of the park 
systems have given it a conspicuous- 
ness and nearness to the city's pleas- 
ure grounds which are seriously dep- 
recated. It thrusts itself upon the 
notice of the throngs of the Prado 
and the Malec6n, and is out of harm- 
ony with its surroundings. The 
American government of intervention 
entertained a plan to remove the Jali 
prisoners to the Hospital Militar, at 
the head of the harbor, and the peni- 
tentiary convicts to the Cabana, and 
thus to make the splendid building 
available for public offices; but the 
scheme was abandoned. A more re 
cent proposition is a plan to utilize 
the magnificent site for a hotel. The 
Carcel was listed in a city schedule in 
1900 at $464,000. 

Just beyond the northern end of 
the Carcel, where an armed guard 
keeps watch by day and night, is the 
Students' Memorial. The simple 
panel is set in a fragment of the waM 
of the old Commissary Building, 
which stood here in the days when 
Havana was full of Spanish troops. 
When th<5 building was demolished 
by the Americans, in the general re- 
arrangement and parking of the land 
around the Punta, this bit was pre- 
served as a fitting memorial of one 
of the tragic incidents in Havana's 
history. The ground in front of the 
wall was a place of public execution; 
it was here that certain students of 
the University of Havana were sac. 
rificed to the animosity of the Span- 
ish volunteers, a full account of which 
is published in this edition. 

Columbus discovered Cuba in 1492, 
landing probably at Banes Bay. He 
coasted west, as far possibly as Nue- 


Was Begun in 1659 — Was Intended 
to Assist IVIorro in Havana's 

The Castillo San Salvador c'e la 
Punta (Punta means point) is situ- 
ated immediately on the water f'ont 
on a jutting point which narrows the 
harbor entrance. It is a small stone 
bastioned work which was begun in 
1659 under direction of the engineers 
of the Morro. It is described in 1762 
as being situated 200 yards from the 
Punta Gate of the city wall, from 
which it was separated by a ditch 
crossed by a drawbridge. The bat- 
teries of La Punta we'e intended 
to supplement the heavier artillery 
of the larger fort across the harbor 
in the siege of Havana by the British, 
La Punta was silenced only after the 
guns of the Morro in the hands of 
the enemy had been turned upon it, 
and its surrender marked the end 
of the city's resistance. The work 
is now used as a barracks by the 
Rural Guard. 

No longer useful as a fortified de. 
fense. La Punta has become the cen- 
tral point of the park improvements 
here designed and carried out by the 
American government of Intervention. 
The American engineers demolished 
the unsightly buildings surrounding 
the fortification, laid out the grounds 
as a park, and transformed the waste 
spaces from a receptacle for all sorts 
of refuse into a well kept park and 
popular recreation ground. The 
shore beyond the west bastion was 
formerly a dumping ground and one 
of the low quarters of the city. This, 
too, the Americans set about reclaim- 
ing and making beautiful. The.' 
found certain conditons res^llt^(i 
from the operation of the Spanish 
law under which the land washel by 
the waves of the sea at the highest 
t'des and during storms is the prop, 
erty of the state. Landward from 
this shore property another strip al- 
so, denominated a service ^one, was 
reserved foi public uses. Riijhts of 
occupancy for these lands were grant- 
ed only by royal orders, and only 
temporary rights were given. Under 
the operation of these laws Havana's 
sea front had been unbuilt on except 
for fortifications and for temporary 
beih houses; so that therrj was lelt 

a bare space along the shore from 
La Punta west to the Almendares 
River at Vedado. It had long been 
the desire of the Havana authorities 
to utilize this space for a parkway 
and shore drive, and in 18?ti General 
Albear had drawn up a plan for the 
purpose; this had never beep adopt- 
ed, however, nor, did the \mprican 
authorities follow it. Under a pro. 
ject prepared by the Chief Engineer, 
Major Wm. M. Black, thev b lilt the 
Malecon and its music stand, and be- 
gan the construction of Gulf Avenue. 

Of all countries, Cuba politically 
and commercially, is most closely as- 
sociated with the United States. 


On arrival in Havana every facili- 
ty is given the stranger. Tug boats 
comje alongside every* passenger 
steamer and aboard are representa- 
tives of all the principal hotels in 
the city. By means of these repre- 
sentatives the visitor can select the 
hotel he desires and so notify the 
representative who will take immed- 
iate charge of the baggage and see 
that it is properly passed through 
the custom house. These representa- 
tives all wear caps or shields with 
the names of their respective hotels 

so that there is no danger of trusting 

to them. 






Cafes Are Everywhere in Havana. 
Many Tempting Drinl<s of Harm, 
less Order Available. 

The cafes are everywhere in Ha- 
vana. The typical caf6 is all open 
to the street and has tiled floor, mar- 
ble wainscoting marble-top tables, 
and marble bar, on which are dis. 
played pineapples, guanabanas, green 
cocoanuts, and other fruits from 
which mild and cooling drinks are 
made. To sit at a table and quaff 
harmless elixirs seems to constitute 
the larger part of the daily life for a 
people who are not too hurried; and 
the visitor is quite likely to find him- 
self taking most kindly to this par- 
ticular custom and experimenting 
with such inviting beverages as he 
may be able to make the waiter com- 
prehend his desire for. 

Among the popular drinks is one 
called panal (honeycomb) or aszu. 
carillo, which is made from a mix- 
ture of sugar and white of egg, dried 
in rolls about six inches long, which 
look like spongy white oandy; the 
rolls are served with a glass of wa- 
ter and with or without a lemon; 
when the panal is dissolved it pro- 
duces a sweetish drink like the eau 
Sucre of the French. There are many 
refrescos or refreshments, made 
from the native fruits. Piiia fria is 
fresh pineapple crushed and served 
in a glass with sugar and ice. Limona - 
da or lemonade is commonly flavored 

nut; even when the nut is plucked 
from the trees on a warm day the 
milk is found to be cool and refresh- 
ing. Other fruits used for drinks 
are the guamabana or sour-sop, and 
the anona or sweet- sop; these are 
the green prickly.skinned fruits with 
white flesh and black seeds, which 
are seen displayed on the caf6 bars. 
The drink called ensalada (salad) is 
a beverage composed of various in- 
gredients, the choice of which is de- 
termined by the fancy and skill of 
the composer. It is not unusual in 
a Havana caf6 to see a person order 
simply a glass of ice-water and sit 
down at a table to drink it; a Cuban 
law require ice.water to be provided 
free in every cafe. 

It is quite proper for ladies to go 
into the cafes of the better class; 
in those adjoining Central Park, after 
the park concerts or during the thea- 
tre intermissions, one finds there a 
gay throng of handsomely dressed 
men and women. There are in the 

dustry, just as in the seventeenth 
century tobacco growing was not per- 
mitted in Ireland because it would 
conflict with the tobacco interests of 
the infant colony of Virginia. Drunk, 
enness is rarely observable in Ha- 


How City's 

Green Foodstuffs Are 
In— Milk Is Peddled 
Backs of Horses. 

In Havana it is the custom to buy 
household supplies for the day only; 
and in addition to the market trade 
there is a large traffic in vegetablps 
and fruits, carried on by hucksters 
and street venders. In the early 
morning the roads leading to the city 
are filled with countrymen (mon- 
teros) bringing in the products of the 
farms, laden on horses and donkeys 
in large panniers. Not infrequently 

course favorable to the street ven- 
ders of all classes, and their musical 
cries are heard everywhere. Charac. 
teristic of street venders about the 
city, are the shoe-seller crying his za. 
patas and zapatillas strung on a rod 
suspended from the shoulder, and the 
seller of laces carrying his assortment" 
displayed in alluring array on a 
staff. Then there is the baratillero, 
whose stock of little notions — pins 
and needles and other housewife sup - 
plies — is contained in wooden boxes 
with glass ends, carried on the back 
of horse or donkey. 


To view the sunset is worth the 
trip to Cuba. 


The hardwoods of Cuba, of which 
there are many varieties, are worthy 
consideration. Some of them are the 
the best cabinet woods known. Very 
beautiful furniture is made of maja. 
gua, for instance, an exquisite green, 
ish wood which takes a high polish. 
Acana, now used largely for railway 
ties and bridge timbers, is a magnifi- 
cent carving wood. Many enterpris- 
ing American settlers in eastern Cuba 
have built themselves homes of hard, 
woods which elsewhere would cost 
fortunes; their furniture is solid ma. 
hogany, unpolished sometimes, or 
again polished to beautiful brilliancy. 

cafes a large and varied assortment i the animals are in trains, the leading 
of sweet cakes and a variety of ices, j horse being ridden, the second tied 
made from the guanabana, melon, | to the tail of the first, the third to 
orange, pineapple, and other fruits, j the tail of the second, and so on for 
One ice cream is named jai alai, aft- i ten or a dozen, with a dog attached 
er the famous game. Ices are usual- : to the tail of the last horse for a 
ly served with barquillos or long j rear guard. The panniers are filled 
rolled wafers. Sweets and cakes are with plantains, oranges, pineapples, 
displayed in great profusion in front I melons, sweet potatoes, sugar cane, 
of little shops everywhere through. I and other commodities. A character. 

out the city, and sweets sellers go 
about the streets bearing trays of 
confections on their heads. 

Coffee is served in all caf6s. Cu- 
with cinnamon. Naranjada is orange- 'bans burn the coffee bean to a cin- 
age. Tamarindo is tamarind paste der; they say that this process de- 
dissolved in water, or the fruit crushed ' stroys the toxic qualities. Milk is 
in water. Orchata is milk of almonds, ' boiled and salted to keep it fresh, 
the French orgeat. This is the reel- j The waiter brings the coffee.pot in 
p6 for home use: Blanch three dozen one hand a pot of boiling milk in the 
sweet almonds, crush thoroughly and ottier; the combination of charred 
boil with two quarts of vanilla for ' coffee and salted milk some persons 

flavoring. Sweeten to taste, and 
when cool strain through a fine sieve. 
Chill before serving. 

like at first taste; some learn to like 
it; some experiment with varying 
proportions of coffee and milk and 
Garapina is made from the skins , never quite determine whether they 
and cores of pinsapples, which are do or not like it. 
washed and placed in a stone jar with ' Wine is drunk with meals as com- ! keys slung head down from the shoul- 
water to cover them; the jar is cov- monly in Cuba as on the Continent. It|der; and live pigs are carried in the 
ered with a netting and allowed to 1 is mostly of Spanish vintage, for over i same manner. The rule is to buy 
stand outdoors to -drment for four ,90 per cent of that imported comes chickens alive, for they are cooked 

istic sight in Havana streets is a 
mass of green advancing wityhout any 
visible means of progression, until 
closer yiew reveals that it is a stack 
of green corn fodder covering and 
enveloping and concealing the animal 
bearing it. This fodder, which is the 
staple food of horses, consists of the 
corn stalks, leaves and tassels; it is 
grown the year round and is brought 
into town in fresh supplies daily. Milk 
cans are carried in panniers on the 
backs of horses; the old custom of 
driving cows through the streets and 
milking them at the door has been 
discontinued. The poultry dealer 
brings in his live chickens and tur- 

or five days; the liquid is then drawn 
off and sugar and water are added. 
The milk of the cocoanut is a com. 
mon and popular beverage, being 
simply poured out from the green 

from Spain. Although the island is 
admirably adapted to the culture of 
grapes, under the Spanish rule grape 
growing was prohibited because it 
would interfere v/ith the home in- 

immediately after killing, which is 
the reason that the flesh of fowls is 
tough when brought to the table of 
the Havanese. 

The open grille windows are of 






Keeps Cuba in Close Touch With 
North and South America, West 
Indies, iVIexico and Europe. 

Cuba is kept closely in touch both 
with North and South America, the 
West Indies, Mexico and Europe, by 
the several services of the Hamburg- 
American Line. Radiating in all di. 
rections, this remarkable fleet of 
modern ocean steamers enables Cuba 
to take advantage of her naturally 
advantageous position. It is largely 
due to the efficiency of these ser- 
vices that Cuba's enormous wealth of 
both imports and exports has increas- 
ed to their present proportions. The 
various steamers of the Hamburg- 
American Line sail on schedules care- 
fully arranged to render their service 
efficient at all times. The comfort 
and convenience of passengers 
throughout these services is assured. 

Steamers of the Hamburg-Ameri- 
can Line calling at Cuba have been 
especially designed and equipped to 
meet climatic conditions. The state- 
rooms are roomy and perfectly ven- 
tilated. The most up-to-date equip- 
ment in the way of electric fans and 
sanitation to be found on the great 
transatlantic liners will be enjoyed 
in even the smaller of these ships. 
The Line prides itself on its complete 
organization of every detail of the 
ship's life. Tbo cookinr; and general 
service is as carefully looked after as 
on the largest steamers. 

The new "Prinz" steamers are of 
about 5,000 tons burden each. The 
cabins are all situated midship and 
only on the two upper decks. This 
location assures perfect ventilation 
and the minimum amount of motion. 
In common with the newest liners, 
these "Prinz" steamers are equipped 
with bilge keels which reduces the 
tendency to roll to a minimum and 
renders the ship steady even in high 

The main saloons and all public 
saloons are luxuriously appointed. 
The dining saloon which extends the 
entire width of the ship is furnished 
as in the cases of the newest transat- 
lantic liners, with series of small 
tables seating four, six or eight per- 
sons. An excellent band of musicians 

accompanies each ship rendering reg- 
ular concerts on deck twice a day as 
well as in the cabin during dinner. 

All of the newest safety devices to 
be found on the largest ships may be 
found on the Atlas ships. The "Prinz" 
steamers were built in the great ship 
building yards of Germany. The ships 
are built throughout with transverse 
bulkheads which make it possible to 
divide up the ship in a series of wa- 
ter-tight compartments. One of these 
vessels might withstand a severe col- 
lision, might practically be cut in 
two without sinking. Even the small- 
est of the Atlas boats are equipped 
with high power wireless telegraph 
apparatus capable of receiving and 
transmitting long distance messages. 
The wireless stations are conducted 
by experienced operators. 

Every ship in the Hamburg- Ameri- 
can service is subject to the same 
careful organization and rigid discip- 
line which obtains on the largest 
steamers. The seamanship of the of- 
ficers is the result of years of train- 
ing, by which they are advanced step 
by step, the result of rigid examina- 

It is not generally realized that the 
Hamburg-American Line comprises 
the largest fleet of vessels in the 
world under one house flag. Its ton- 
nage is even greater than the entire 
navy or merchant marines of several 
of the world's powers. The Hamburg - 
American Line's fleet at present com- 
prises 171 ocean liners and 217 other 
vessels; aggregating 388 vessels with 
a total tonnage of considerably over 
one million tons. The Line contains 
sixty different services which visit 
all parts of the world, visiting among 
350 ports of call. 

The Hamburg-American Line is 
constantly carrying on experiments 
with new devices to improve the effi- 
ciency of their ships. A case in point 
are the tests made with the gyroscope 
for the purpose of stabilizing ships at 
sea. After considerable expenditure 
of time and money it was decided 
that the gyroscope principle was not 
practical and the work was abandon- 
ed. Not discouraged at this failure 
the Hamburg-American Line now 
took up experimenting with the new 
rolling tank device known as the 
Frahm Rolling Tank. 

In some respects the service en- 
joyed by Cuba is even superior to 

that of the great steamers of the 
North Atlantic. The "Ypiranga" 
which maintains a direct service be 
tween Mexican ports, Cuba and Eu- 
rope, has been the first regular pas- 
senger steamer to be installed with 
the new Frahm Rolling Tank. This 
marvellous invention, it has been 
proven, practically does away with 
the rolling of the ship even in heavy 
weather and renders sea-sickness a 
thing of the past. The actual test 
made in the run between Cuba and 
Europe has proven that the tanks will 
reduce the rolling of the ship from 
sixteen degrees from the perpendicu- 
lar to two or three degrees. So sat- 
isfactory has been the test that the 
non-rolling tanks will be installed on 
the giant "Imperator" — the largest 
ship in the world now under con- 
struction. Meanwhile tourists sailing 
from Cuba have enjoyed the latest 
device in steamship equipment two 
years in advance of the great trans- 
atlantic liners sailing from New York. 

A series of five winter cruises is 
maintained by the Hamburg-Ameri- 
can Line from New York to the West 
Indies each of which makes one or 
more stops at Cuba. In the course 
of the season several thousand tour- 
ists are thus brought to Cuba which 
serves to familiarize the tourists with 
the beauties of Cuba and its com- 
mercial possibilities. Throughout the 
year a series of cruises are made 
weekly from New York to Cuba and 
the West Indies which bring a steady 
stream of pleasure traffic to the isl- 

Direct services are maintained be- 
tween both the Eastern and Western 
extremities of Cuba and New York. 
The frequent sailings between New 
York and Havana by the palatial 
"Prinz" steamers has, of course, come 
to play an important part in the so- 
cial and commercial life of the Re- 
public. By installing a direct service 
between Santiago and New York the 
Hamburg-American Line has made it 
possible for the large population in 
the eastern section of Cuba to reach 
the United States quickly and com- 
fortably without necessitating the 
trip across the island to Havana- 

A full day has been saved in the 
journey to and from New York and 
these eastern cities. Other steamers 
of the Hamburg- American Line, after 
calling at Havana, make a circuit of 

Cuba on their way to New York thus 
establishing a belt line which brings 
the entire island in direct communi- 
cation with the United States and 
Europe. The remarkable increase in 
tourist travel to Cuba from the Unit- 
ed States is very largely due to the 
perfection of the Hamburg-American 
Line service and the widespread ad- 
vertising it has given Cuba and its 
many attractions throughout the 
United States. 

The Hamburg-American Line is at 
present constructing the largest 
steamer in the world, the S. S. "Im- 
perator," which will connect at New 
York with steamers to Cuba. The 
"Imperator" will be about 900 feet 

in length and 50,000 tons burden with 
a displacement of 73,000 tons. She 
will carry 4,250 passengers with a 
crew of 1,000 which will make a total 
of 5,250. The "Imperator" will be 
the last word in luxury on the high 
sea. One of her newest novel fea- 
tures is the reproduction of the fam- 
ous Roman baths carried out in mar- 
ble and bronze. This will contain a 
spacious swimming pool in which the 
tourists may enjoy sea bathing with 
unusual luxury while at sea. 

Colonel Henry Watterson, editor of 
the Louisville Courier-Journal, says 
"See Naples and die." See Cuba and 






Delightful Trip Is Available for Tour- 
ists Along Cuba's Southern 

Steamers sail from Batabano ev- 
ery Wedn€sday for Cienfuegos, Ca- 
silda, Tunas, Jucaro, Santa Cruz del 
Sur, Manzanillo, Ensenada de Mora, 
and Santiago de Cuba. Batabano is 
reached by the United Railways from 
Havana. The ships are large and 
commodious; everything is clean, 
fresh and open; there is no stuffi- 
ness nor any of the odors character- 
istic of steamships; the cooking is in 
the Spanish style, and the food ■ is 
abundant, varied and good. 

From Batabano to Cabo de Cruz it 
Is one of the most delightful sea 
trips imaginable. The ship's course 
is through waters sheltered by out- 
lying keys and as calm and smooth 
as a lake in a city park. There is 
not even any ground swell to disturb 
the equanimity of a voyager subject 
to seasickness. Hour after hour the 
ship glides through a tranquil sea, 
whose glassy plane is unbroken save 
by the flying fish which scuds from 
the bow and goes skimming like a 
swallow over the water. The Carib- 
bean sea water is sapphire; the color- 
ing is intense; and against this deep 
background the silver crest of the 
wave from the ship shows in aazzling 
contrast. The richness of color effects 
pervades the entire picture of sea and 
land and sky; at certain hours of the 
day the very air itself is tinted. For 
long stretches the coast is rugged; 
hills and mountains rise abruptly 
from the shore, their verdant slopes 
reflected in the water; and distant 
ranges lie like cloud banks on the 
horizon. The scenery is superb; 
travelers liken it to that of the Medi- 

Batabano is the habitation of a 
race of sponge fishermen, hundreds 
of whose vessels are seen in adjacent 
waters. Many of the streets are ca- 
nals. A chairacteristic feature of the 
place is the basket-trap for fish. 
The Batabano fisherman weaves it 
from cane, and uses it today as the 
Indian did before him. From Bata- 
bano the ship's course is through tor- 
tuous channels amid a multitude of 
Islands, where the water is charac- 
terized by a peculiar milky, cloudy 

appearance, which so impressed Co- 
lumbus that he took some bottlefuls 
of it home to show the King. South- 
east stretches the vast Zapata Swamp, 
so called from its shape of a shoe (za- 
pata, shoe). Southwest lies the Isle 
of Pines, to which a steamer sails 
from Batabano twice a week. The first 
port of call is Cienfuegos. The har- 
bor entrance by a sharp turn is com- 
pletely shut off from view. On the 
approach from sea there is apparent - 
ly no break in the shore; once we are 
within there appears to be no way 
out. Passing through the narrow and 
winding entrance channel three miles 
long, the ship enters the magnificent 
bay, eleven miles long and three to 
five miles wide, dotted here and 
there with palm -adorned islands, ana 
surrounded by hills and mountains. 
The town lies on a slight elevation, 
six miles from the sea. South from 
Cienfuegos the ship is constantly in 
sight of the San Juan range of moun- 
tains, extending along the coast for 
fifty miles and more, and presenting 
a panorama of much grandeur and 
constantly shifting as with the pro- 
gress of the ship new peaks and val- 
leys come into view. The mountains 
culminate in the peaks of San Juan 
and Potrerilla, the latter 3,200 feet in 
height. Casilda, forty-two miles 
from Cienfuegos, is the port of Trini- 
dad, which enjoys the reputation of 
being one of the pleasantest and 
healthiest places in Cuba, and al- 
ways a favorite resort for invalids. 
The town occupies an elevated situa- 
tion on the side of the mountain well 
called La Vigia (The Watchtower), 
whence it looks out over the sea, as 
it has looked for almost four centuries. 
It is, next to Baracoa, the oldest town 
in Cuba. In the old days when the 
ports were closed, an extensive con- 
traband trade was carried on between 
Trinidad and Jamaica, the Spaniards 
exporting tobacco, mahogany and 
other products, and receiving from 
the English in exchange negro slaves 
for the plantations. The neighboring 
country is very fertile; the sugar 
planters here were worth millions 
before the war destroyed their plan- 
tations. An American colony settled 
here is engaged in fruit culture. 

Tunas de Zaza has railroad connec- 
tion with Sancti Spiritus, a point 
which Is now reached by the Cuba 
Railroad. Jucaro Is the southern 

terminus of the Jucaro and San Fer- 
nando Railroad, connecting at Ciego 
de Avila with the main line, of the 
Cuba Railroad. Tne Jucaro and San 
Fernando was the military railroad 
along the Trocha, which here cut the 
island in two. The lines are shown 
on the map. 

Santa Cruz del Sur is a collection 
of diminutive toy houses built on a 
long narrow strip of land between the 
bay and a lagoon, and on the outer 
end looking like a South Sea 
village of thatched huts under the 
cocoanut palms. 

At Manzanillo they have one of 
those little drop-curtain plazas — 
Plaza del Oro — you have seen it be- 
fore in a theater, you say to yourself, 
with the royal palms and the stone 
Sphinxes at the corners, where the 
negro women sell roast pig smoking 
hot off their stands. This and the 
line of electric lights on the water 
front receding and dimming as your 
ship heads for Cape Cruz, are the pic- 
tures you will remember of Manza- 
nillo. There are lying near the Men- 
dez wharf wrecks of two ships of 
the company which were destroyed by 
the Americans in the war, lest they 
should serve as transports for Span- 
ish troops. 

From Cabo de Cruz to Santiago we 
are in sight of some of the grandest 
coast scenery in the world. The 
Sierra Maestra mountains here rise 
boldly from the sea to a height of 
5,000 .and 6,000 feet. Ojo del Toro, 
the Eye of the Bull, towers above the 
cape; and beyond the Pico Turquino 
lifts its summit 8,320 feet In the air, 
the highest peak on the island. The 
bold and precipitous coast line con- 
tinues all the way to Santiago bar 



Havana Cabmen Expect No Tips from 
Their Passengers and They 
Charge Little. 

Havana's Botanical Garden contains 
numerous specimens of tropical trees 
fruits, plants and flowers. There are 
avenues of royal palms, artificial 
grottos and minature cascades. It is 
enclosed by a massive iron fence. 

Cuba's native flora comprises over 
3,350 plants, besides those which have 
been and are being constantly intro- 

To the tourist who is accustomed 
to one dollar fares and expensive 
tips the cabmen in Havana is apt to 
be considered little short of a boon. 
Here tips are not expected and the 
fare for one trip within the old city 
limits to Belascoain street is 20 cents 
Spanish silver for one or two persons, 
and five cents for each additional pas- 

For business purposes, driving from 
place to place, with short stops, the 

fare is 75 cents Spanish silver for 
one or two persons, and 25 cents for 
each additional passenger. 

For a continuous drive by the hour 
for one or two persons, ?1.50, and 26 
cents each additional passenger. 


Cars marked Cerro in green or 
Palatino in green and white, will 
convey the visitor to Cerro, a resi- 
dence quarter. Cerro is reached, 
too, by carriage drive; the best 
route is Malecon, Infanta to Carlos 
III, to Tulipan and thence either to 
Marianao or via Palatino out the 
Vento road. 

The Cuban government always give 
facilities for new railrodas. 






Was One of Few Spanish Governors 
Who Rendered Much Good 
for Cuba. 

The name of Tacon is seen in many 
places in Havana and any work on 
Havana will have many references to 
it, for Miguel Tacon, who came to 
Cuba as Governor-General in 1834, 
left am indelible impress upon the 
character and development of the city. 
Under his predecessors there had 
been a reign of lawlessness and crime. 
The streets of Havana and the coun- 
try roads were infested with high- 
waymen by day and by night. Mer- 
chants who had money to transfer 
from one town to another were com- 
pelled to pay for a military escort. 
People feared to venture into the 
streets at night, and when the citizens 
appealed to Governor Vivas, that 
worthy replied, "Do as I do; never 
go out after dark." 

Tacon was of different fiber. He 
came with absolute power conferred 
by royal decree, giving him the au- 
thority of a commander of a city in 
a state of siege; and he adopted most 
arbitrary and summary measures to 
stamp out crime. He apprehended a 
few of the robbers and displayed 
their heads in parrot cages on the 
Punta walk for an example to all 
their kind; arrested vagrants and 
bearers of deadly weapons, getting to- 
gether a chain-gang of 2,000 such 
convicts, and set them to work break- 
ing stone for roads, sweeping the 
streets, and building highroads, pa- 
seos, prisons and aqueducts. 

To "Tacon's lapidarians" Havana 
owes many of its finest streets and 
pubHc buildings. He put an end to 
frauds, robberies and murders; shut 
up the gambling houses; abolished 
the national card game of monte, for- 
bidding it even in private houses; 
prohibited all gambling except bet- 
ting at cock fights, which were 
licensed and taxed for the benefit 
of the state; and made travel safe in 
town and country alike, so that one 
might go where he pleased and keep 
his purse and his life. He held the 
captains of partidos (country magis- 
trates) responsible for robberies com- 
mitted in their districts by decreeing 
that the robber must be sent to Ha- 
vana or the captain must make good 

the loss. Tacon was a despot and 
exercised a despot's power unre- 
strained by law or constitution. He 
seized men and without trial sent 
them into exile or immured them in 
the loathsome dungeons of Morro or 
Cabaiia, leaving their families and 
friends in absolute ignorance of their 

Numerous stories have been told of 
him which seem to show that with 
all its harshness, Tacon justice some- 
times had a fine flavor of grim humor. 
His compelling way with delinquent 
debtors on complaint of their credit- 
ors was to pay the debt out of his 
own pocket, and so make himself the 
creditor. An instance of this is re- 
lated by Jonathan S. Jenkins, an Amer- 
ican miniature painter, whose remi- 
niscences of the Havana of that day 
have been printed in the Century 
Magazine. A feeble old man had 
walked from a distance in the coun- 
try to complain to Tacon that a 
wealthy planter neighbor owed him 
money and would not pay it. The 
debtor, being then in Havana, Ta- 
con sent the guard to bring him, and 
confronted him with the accuser. The 
planter admitted the claim and prom- 
ised to pay as soon as he returned 
home. "But," said Tacon, "this old 
man has walked a long way to obtain 
his rights. He must ride home. I 
will pay the debt of ?1,500 and you 
can pay me." The old man went 
away rejoicing, records Mr. Jenkins; 
and the uneasy planter could not 
have Tacon for his creditor, so he re- 
paid the money before he left the 
city. On another occasion, when a 
balloonist had sold several thousand 
dollars' worth of tickets, but the bal- 
loon failed to rise, Tacon confiscated 
the money and gave It to the orphan 
asylum. Again, when a successful 
slaving house brought to him a dou- 
ceur of a doubloon a head on a cargo 
of slaves smuggled into Cuba in vio- 
lation of the law, instead of accepting 
the "tainted money," as other Govern- 
ors had done, he at first indignantly 
refused the bribe, but on second 
thought, accepted it and turned it over 
to the orphan asylum. A character- 
istic anecdote related by Mr. Jen- 
kins is one of Tacon and a celebrated 
fortune teller of Havana: 

"This seer had great reputation In 
his mystical art, and immense influ- 
ence over the minds and purses of 

all classes, for superstition is a very 
common infirmity there. This impos- 
ter was in the interests of the slave - 
dealers and their captains, from whom 
he received 'hard' reasons to turn the 
influence to their benefit. Sailors 
were in the habit of consulting him 
to learn their fortune in going to Afri- 
ca on slave expeditions. The seer 
always foretold great gains and a safe 
trip. This so encouraged them to 
engage in this business that the cap- 
tains of merchantmen found it diffi- 
cult to obtain seamen, and they com- 
plained of the evil to Tacon. The 
general sent for the fortune-teller, 
who seemed flattered by the call, 
thinking his Excellency wished the 
service of his art. When he appeared 
Tacon asked: 

" 'Do you profess to know the fu- 
ture, and foretell its events"?' 

" 'Yes, your Excellency'; and he be- 
gan to shuffle his cards, and put him- 
self in a prophetic attitude, with a 
serious, profound looking expression 
of countenance. 

" 'What do your cards pronounce?' 
asked Tacon, when he seemed to be 

"He cut the cards, and began slow- 
ly to read: 'His Bxceriency is ex- 
tremely popular with all classes, and 
his horoscope reveals a bright future 
of wealth, power — ' here he hesitated 
a moment. 

" 'Make your story short," impa • 
tiently replied Tacon. 'I have other 
matters to attend to.' 

" 'That is all the future reveals to- 
day," answered the diviner. 

" "Not all, perhaps,' said Tacon, 
'Give me your cards. I am a fortune- 
teller sometimes myself.' (Shuffled 
the cards and cut them.) 'I see that 
you will be breaking stonfe in the 
Morro Castle in less than an hour, 
and you will stay there two years.' 

"Tacon ordered the guard to take 
him away and deliver him to the 
commandante of the castle with an 
order for his imprisonment for two 
years at hard labor." 


Havana's drinking water is so good 
that it is a common saying among 
the natives that once a stranger 
drinks it he never fails to return to 
Cuba sooner or later. 


New railroads are constantly be- 
ing built in Cuba. 


Flag Was Designed by Old Cuban 
Patriot Narclso Lopez — Expla- 
nation of Cuba's Shield. 

The Cuban Coat-of-Arms bears a 
close relationship to the flag of the 
country, and is similar in color and 
design. The design of the flag was 
the idea of the great Cuban patriot, 
Narciso Lopez, and of the poet, Miguel 
Teurbe Tolon, of Matanzas. The five 
bars, three sky blue and two white, 
represent the five provinces into 
which Cuba was first divided, and the 
five-pointed star indicates the unity 
of government of the greatest island 
of the Antilles. 

Upon the shield, likewise, the bars 
represent Cuba's five original prov- 
inces; the opposite side shows Cuba's 
pride, the beautiful Royal Palm, the 
favorite theme of her poets, and the 
bit of landscape of green hills and 
valleys, forming the background, is 
typical of the country's natural beau- 
ty. On the upper part of the shield 
the two peninsulas represent Florida 
and Yucatan; the key signifies Cuba's 
relative position to those shores and 
to the Gulf of Mexico; and the rising 
sun pictures the dawning of the new 
republic. Crowning all is the Phry- 
gian cap, symbol of liberty, the re- 
ward of years of struggle on the part 
of Cuba's patriotic sons. 






Many Ports Are Near Each Other and 
Voyage to Them Is Enjoyable. 
Trip Lacks Monotony. 

Coasting the north shore on the 
steamships affords a thoroughly en- 
joyable experience. The ship's course 
is for most of the way quite near 
land, and the ports are so close to- 
gether that there is none of the mo- 
notony of a long voyage at sea. Most 
of the harbors are landlocked bays, 
entered through narrow winding 
channels; many of the towns are pic- 
turesque, as Gibara and Baracoa; 
there is much that is novel to the 
northern eye; and the scenery is at- 
tractive, the interest growing as we 
proceed to the east and the mountain 
ranges come into view. There is 
much to engage the attention at sea 
and in port, and in some of the har- 
bors the steamers provide launch ex- 
cursions for sightseeing, hunting and 
fishing, while the ship is receiving 
or discharging cargo. 

One route of ships is from New 
York direct to Matanzas, thence to 
Cardenas, Sagua la Grande, Caibari^n, 
Nuevitas, Puerto Padre, Gibara and 
Vita and Baracoa. Returning, they 
stop at Gibara and Nuevitas, sailing 
from that port to New York. They 
visit also, ou occasion, the ports of 
Manati, Bariay, Sama, Banes, Nipe 
and Sagua de TSnamo. 

The ships of a Cuban steam- 
ship line touch the ports of Sagua la 
Grande, Gaibari6n, Nuevitas, Puerto 
Padre, Gibara, Sagua de Tanamo and 
Baracoa; thence on the south coast 
Guantanamo and Santiago de Cuba. 

The ships of both lines are well 
equipped and comfortable; the table 
is excellent, and the association with 
officers and fellow voyagers is agree- 
able. The principal ports visited are 
noted in brief. 

Cardenas is thirty miles east of 
Matanzas on Cardenas Bay, a harbor 
which is magnificent in extent, but 
shallow. Settled in 1839, the city is 
one of the youngest on the island, as 
it is one of the most flourishing; it 
ranks fifth in importance in importa- 
tions and second in exportations. It 
is modern in plan and construction, 
with wide streets and pavements, 
substantial buildings, handsome 

stores, an impgsing cathedral and 
pleasant plaza. Americans have al- 
ways been an important element in 
the business and social life, to such 
a degree that it has been called an 
American city. The Plaza del Recreo 
has a statue of Columbus, presented 
to the city in 1862 by Queen Isabella 
II. A peculiar phenomenon of the 
harbor is the flow of fresh water 
which gushes up from subterranean 
rivers. The harbor contains extensive 

Sagua la. Grande is on the river of 
the same name, which is the most 
important of the north coast, being 
navigable for twenty miles. The port 
of entry. La Isabel, called also Isa- 
bella de Sagua, is a town built on 
stilts over the water. Among the in- 
teresting Sagua relics of the past is 
an ancient looped tower, which was 
built for protection against the 

Caibarien is the seaport of Rome- 

gers are conveyed to and from the 
ship in small boats, for which the fare 
is 50 cents. The town, situated in 
the center of a crescent range of hills 
surrounding the harbor, rises from 
the water in a series of terraces, and 
as seen from the bay the picture is 
pleasing. The Church of the Virgen 
de la Caridad and the municipal 
buildings stand out conspicuously on 
the summit of the hill. The bay is 
noted for its fish and sponges; good 

harbor of Puerto Padre, entered 
through a winding channel between 
low banks of mangroves and coral 
rock, which looks like the Florida 
coquina. The ship anchors in the bay 
a mile from the town, which is small 
and without interest. The port is of 
growing importance as the center o£ 
extensive sugar production. The 
Chaparra sugaa* mill, of which the 
smoke stacks are seen in the distance 
on the left as the ship enters the 
harbor, is the largest in existence; it 
is owned by an American company in 
which Mrs. Hetty Green is interested. 
San Manuel, another sugar mill, has 
been built very near this port. 

Gibara is another town which has 
a picturesque situation on a hill slope 
rising from the water. The houses 
are brightly painted, and if we enter 
the harbor late in the day the scene 
is full of color. 

Sagua de Tanamo, the next port 
east of Gibara, is entered through a 
I narrow winding channel opening into 
a bay with clusters of islands on 
i which are little settlements of 
[ thatched houses surrounded by ba- 
! nana groves. The background is of 
I mountains, parting very high, their 
slopes clothed with dense verdure in 
many shades of green. The combina- 
tion of bay and islands and mountains 
makes up one of the loveliest land- 
scapes in Cuba. The town is situate '1 
ten miles inland on the Sagua Rucr. 

Nipe Bay is the finest harbor on 
the north coast. There is no bar; 
the chart shows 198 to .''.0 feet in 
mid channel between Mayarl and 
Ramon points, which mark the en- 
trance from the sea. 


asphalt deposits, and vessels moor 
over the beds to dredge up their car- 
goes. The bay was the scene of the 
Winslow tragedy of the Spanish- 
American war. In old days Cardenas 
Bay was a stronghold of the pirates, 
and a distributing point of their 
booty to the towns of the Interior. 
There are large sugar plantations in 
the vicinity. The exports are honey, 
wax and mahogany. The population 
in 1889 was 24,861. 

dios, five and a half miles inland, and 
is an important sugar exporting point. 
There are large plantations in the 
vicinity. Other industries are sponge 
fishing, mahogany and cedar cutting, 
and the production of honey. 

Nuevitas is situated on a very nar- 
row, winding passage, four and a half 
miles in length. Prom the entrance 
open two bays, Mayabano and Nue- 
vitas. Vessels anchor in the harbor 
two miles from the wharf. Passen- 

tairpoon fishing may be had. Numer- 
ous tame pelicans are a pleasant fea- 
ture. The chief export of Nuevitas 
is sugar. Entering this harbor Octo- 
ber 28, 1492, Columbus named it 
Puerto Principe, and here in 1515 was 
established the town of that name, 
which was afterward removed to the 
old Indian village of Camaguey. The 
present Nuevitas was established in 

Fifty miles east of Nuevitas is the 


At Ciego de Avila (pop. 4242), in 
Camaguey province, the Cuba Rail- 
road crosses the line of the famous 
military road (trotcha), built by the 
Spaniards as a barrier against Cuban 
insurgents in revolutionary times. It 
extended from Moron on the north 
coast to Jucaro on the south. Little 
forts were built short distances apart 
along its route to guard it. Some of 
these fortlets stand yet battered, cov- 
ered with moss, draped with vines, so 
picturesque and poetic in appearance 
it is difficult to realize that they were 
built for other than decorative pur- 





Main Line Begins at Santa Clara and 
Extends to Santiago Through 
Three Largest Provinces. 

The Cuba Railroad, Is from more 
than one point of view the most im- 
portant, and is destined to be the 
richest railroad of Cuba. 

No person visiting Cuba, bent either 
on business or pleasure, should fail 
to see the territory served by the 
Cuba Railroad Co., whose main line 
commences at Santa Clara and ends 
in Santiago. It runs, therefore, 
through the three largest provinces 
of Cuba, which represent about 73 
per cent of the total area of the is- 
land, although they contain but 50 
per cent of its total population. This 
will give an idea of the possibilities 
of this portion of the country. 

Cuba is reputed to be one of the 
richest, if not the richest island in 
the world. The territory served by 
The Cuba Railroad Co. comprises the 
richest part of Cuba. This Is espe- 
cially true of Oriente, a province rich 
in historj, rich in area, immensely 
rich in possibilities, and splendidly 
rich in suenery of so diversified a 
nature as to be unrivalled by that of 
any other province of the island. 

It comprises also some of the most 
ancient and interesting cities of Cuba. 

First among them is Santiago de 
Cuba, the capital of the province of 
Oriente, and which was for some time 
the bapital of the island. It was 
founded by Don Diego Veldzquez 395 
years ago, when the great Aztec em- 
pire was still intact, when Henry 
VIII. was ruling England, 106 years 
t)efore the Pilgrim Fathers set forth 
on their memorable voyage. It is to- 
•day a city of 60,000 inhabitants which 
■offers to travelers all modern con- 
veniences, but which has preserved 
its charming antique aspect. 

San Juan Hill and El Caney, dear 
to the hearts of Americans, are with- 
in easy reach. Old Morro Castle, 
where Hobson was imprisoned, is 
•only five miles away. Magnificent au- 
tomobile roads leave the city in sev- 
eral directions. One of these roads 
is particularly worthy of notice and 
no visitor to Santiago should fall to 
•see It. It Is a winding road, built 
iTDy General Wood, which conquers one 

of the many hills surrounding Santi • 
ago. The scenery from this road is 
simply indescribable. It opens to the 
traveler's view a number of beauti- 
ful valleys, and from its summit 
(1,525 feet labove sea level) he can 
see Santiago and its harbor and, deep 
in the far background, the sea. Noth- 
ing, in Cuba certainly, and few 
scenes anywhere, can equal this; none 
are like it in its tropical beauty, and 
none of any kind in any clime sur- 

tractions are its time-eaten churches, 
of which it possesses a goodly num- 
ber. Its climate is ideal, in the win- 
ter months especially. It is a most 
agreeable resting place. Realizing 
this. The Cuba Railroad Co. has, at 
great expense, opened the Hotel "Ca- 
maguey," which is, without doubt, the 
most comfortable hotel in Cuba Th'. 
drainage, plumbing and all sanitary 
arrangements are as perfect as pos 
sible, the bedrooms are unusually 

tains extremely fert-;ie soil, great 
tracts of very valuable timber land 
and very large deposits of ore — cop- 
per and manganese especially. It will 
be worth the while of any. investor 
to look into the opportunities of this 
territory as quickly as possible. 

This new territory contains several 
important towns, among which is 

Bayamo, which was founded by 
Diego Velftzquez in 1514, and is one 
of the most interesting of Cuban cities 


pass it in varied and exquisite loveli- 

Camaguey is another city of great 
interest. It is the capital of th« 
province of the same name, and was 
also founded by Velazquez at the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century. Here 
The Cuba Railroad Co. has estab- 
lished its headquarters. It is a city 
of about 30,000 inhabitants and is full 
of most quaint and picturesque nooks 
and corners. Among Its chief at- 

large and airy; the great corridors 
are striking features, and the inner 
garden, or patio, is beautiful. It is 
most artistically set with tropical 
plants and trees of various kinds, 
among which are the stately palm and 
the graceful bambro. 

The Cuba Railroad Co. has recent- 
ly finished the construction of new 
lines aggregating about 200 niiles of 
road. The territory opened iy these 
new lines is immensaiy rich. It con- 

from an historical point of view. It 
is situated on the northern slope of 
the Sierra Maestra range of moun- 
tains and is partly encircled by the 
river Bayamo, one of Cuba's most im- 
portant streams. 

On account of the attacks made on 
Santiago by buccaneers, a number of 
the wealthiest of the residents of 
Santiago migrated to Bayamo, which 
for a length of time was the center 
of learning and culture in Cuba. The 

most prominent of the leaders' of the 
revolution of 1868 were citizens of 
Bayamo. It was captured by the in- 
surgents in 1868, and the tfext year, 
when it became impossible to de- 
fend it against the battalions of Count 
Valmaseda, it was set on fire by its 
inhabitants. The example was set 

'by a young woman — almost a girl— 
who resolutely set fire to her home 
and urged her fellow citizens to do 
likewise. Bayamo has lived a 

1 languishing existence since then and 

i still has many a ruin to show her love 

j tor liberty. 

I A few miles to the southwest of 
Bayamo is the famous battlefield of 

I Peralejo, in which the Cuban leader, 
Antonio Maceo, almost captured Gen- 
eral Martinez Campos, the Governor 
General of Cuba, who had to seeli 
refuge in Bayamo. This victory gave 
great impulse to the revolution ot 

At Bayamo is the convent of San 
Francisco, in the patio of which was 
buried the neice of Diego Velasquez. 

Another point of great impor- 
tance is 

Antilla, on Nipe Bay, the northern 
terminus of The Cuba Railroad Co., 
where extensive dockage facilities 
have been provided by the company. 
The Royal Mail Steam Packet Com- 
pany and the Munson Steamship Line 
make regular calls at Antilla and oth- 
er regular services will be established 
in the near future. 

The company has built at Antilla 
a first class hotel where travelers will 
find every convenience at moderate 

The Cuba Railroad Co. runs a daily 
train from Villanueva Station, Ha- 
vana, to Santiago. This train car- 
ries sleeping and observation cars. 
It leaves Havana at 10 p. m., reaches 
Camaguey at 12:30 p. m. ot the next 
day and arrives at Santiago nine 
hours later. 

There is also a train running daily 
between Havana and Camaguey. It 
leaves Havana at 8:15 a. m. and ar- 
rives at Camaguey at 10:15 p. m. of 
the same day. 

Descriptive illustrated literature of 
the territory served by The Cuba 
Railroad Co., as well as any particu- 
lar information concerning same, may 
be obtained by addressing P. Rosado, 
Traffic Agent, The Cuba Railroad Co., 
Camaguey, Cuba. 






Offers Luxurious Transportation 
the Tourist to Every Part of 
of Cuba East of Havana. 


Touring Cuba may be accomplished 
witli every ease and comfort by the 
United Railways of Havana and their 
connections, and sojourns in the 
principal towns and cities of the in- 
terior now enter into the Itinerary 
of every well-informed visitor to 
Cuba, who is no longer content with 
only the enchantments of the capital 
for he knows that the other cities of 
the Island, each distinctively charm, 
ing in some particular way of its 
own, have attractions that are in 
some respects even more alluring 
than those of the metropolis itself. 

For, however fascinating Havana 
may be, a greater, grander Cuba lies 
beyond, and it is only after traveling 
through this lovely Island that 
one realizes what a beautiful garden 
Cuba is, and today all the most im- 
portant and interesting parts of the 
Island are easily reached by railways, 
so that a general tour of the Island 
is best. The tourist who has not the 
time at his disposal to do this j 
can avail himself ol the many short- 
er excursions to towns near Havana, 
and thus become acquainted with and 
enjoy the charms of rural Cuba and 
the matchless beauty of its tropical 

The United Railways of Havana 
hold the key to nearly all the im- 
portant and interesting points on the 
island east of Havana; in fact if the 
tourist wishes to see Cuba as it real, 
ly is, it will only be necessary for 
him to take any one of the through 
trains over this system and its con- 
necting lines eastward and the al- 
luring panorama of the varied phases 
of Cuban life and sceneries unfold 
themselves in a series of captivating 
situations and delightful prospects. 
This can be taken in all comfort. The 
coaches in use are of the very latest 
pattern, lighted by electricity, and 
furnished with electric fans for the 
additional comfort of the travelers. 
The company has also established an 
efficient buffet service on its prin- 
cipal trains, and is continually intro- 
ducing some improvement or other 

with the end in view of providing 
the very best service for the travel, 
ing public. 


Of the many shorter trips from Ha- 
vana, the most popular and Interest- 
ing is that of the beautiful city of 
Matanzas — sixty-three miles east- 
ward from the capital. It possesses 
all the quaint and foreign aspects 
that are so characteristic of Cuban 
cities, and at the same time is un. 

innumerable incandescent electric 
lamps; the grand scenery viewed 
from the famous hermitage of Mon. 
serrate, and its maay other natural 
beauties make Matanzas an ideal 
place to spend /several days most 
pleasantly, and year after year the 
number of visitors to Matanzas is 

So charming a city is Matanzas 
that every tourist should, if possi- 
ble, make a stay, there of several 

The wonderful caves of Bellamar 
are situated about two miles on the 
other side of the city of Matanzas. 
They are located on a plateau as 
level as a table top, which presents 
no visible sign of the existence of 
caves of such renown. Entering a 
small house, however, tne tourist ap- 
proaches a broad stairway cut out of 
the rock, leading down to an im. 
mense gallery in this subterranean 
world of wonder. Descending with 


the Gothic Temple, is 250 feet long 
and 80 feet wide. 

There are many very luierestin?; 
excursions possible from Matanzas. 
over the beautiful blue waters of its 
bay and on the San Juan river, and a 
trip up the intensely tropical Canimar 
river, which winds between steep 
cliffs for a distance of about eight 
miles and then enters into an almost 
impenetrable jungle of ideal tropical 
character, is one that should not be 
missed by any. In fact, several days 
very delightful camping may be en- 
joyed on the shores of this wonderful 
stream. There are also many miles 
of excellent macadamized roads run. 
ning in different directions, so that 
for many reasons Matanzas is a place 
where time may be most pleasantly 
occupied in excursions of one kind 
or another. 

usually rich in picturesque surround- 

The beautiful valley of the Yumurl, 
which elicited such unstinted praise 
from the great Humboldt; the won- 
derful and dense tropical vegetation 
on the upper reaches of the Canimar 
river and its tributary, the Moreto; 
the great caves of Bellamar, the sub- 
terranean wonderland, several miles 
in extent lined with beautiful crys- 
tal formations, and Illuminated by 

days, in order to enjoy lei-surely the 
many attractions of the vicinity. 

The beautiful valley or the Yumurl 
may be best viewed from the summit 
of the hill on which is located the 
hermitage of Monserrate, although 
another and exceptionally good view 
of the valley may be had from the 
summit of the opposite hill, which 
is reached through an interesting 
residential quarter of Matanzas 
known as "Versalles." 

the cave guide he begins to feel that 
here, indeed, is something unusual, 
and after going down about sixty feet 
he finds that the cave is lined on all 
sides with beautiful crystal forma- 
tions, the effect of the electric light 
upon which is most wonderful. He 
descends lower here, and ascends 
there, walks in this direction and 
that for many hundred feet, here in 
narrow passages, there in magnifi- 
cent halls, one of which latter, called 


Today the Isle of Pines is essentially 
American. The tranformation of 
this lovely little island by the Ameri. 
can settlers is little short of a mira- 
cle, for today it presents everywhere 
striking evidence of intensive culti- 
vation. Comfortable homes have 
been built, and large acreages can 
be seen on every hand under profit- 
able cultivations, such as grapefruit, 
oranges, pineapples, etc. 

The modern name of the island is 
taken from its magnificent forests of 
pines, but there are many valuable 
hard woods, including mahogany, as 
well. There are important mineral 
springs at Santa P6. 

The Isle of Pines enjoys the same 
delightful climate as Cuba, and it 
abounds in means for every variety 
of outdoor life. It has many very 
excellent bathing beaches, that at Bi- 
bijagua near Nueva Gerona, now pos- 
sessing a comfortably appointed new 
hotel, opened in November last. At 
the McKinley Colonies, six miles 
from Nueva Gerona, settled princi- 
pally by Americans, there is now a 
very comfortable hotel. 

Week-end excursions at low rates 
to the Isle of Pines from Havana have 
become a delightful rail trip and sea 
voyage. With the opening of the 
hotels above mentioned, and the com- 
pletion of others that have been pro- 
jected, the outlook is exceedingly 
bright for the Isle of Pines as a popu- 
lar winter resort. 






Model Trolley Route, Famous for Its 
Scenic Tours and Beautiful 

The most modern railway in Cuba 
and a model line in every respect is 
the Havana Central Railroad, con- 
structed within the last five years, an 
all-electric line, both its freight and 
passenger traffic being operated by 
electric traction. 

This system is divided into three 
divisions. The Guanajay division 
runs southwesterly from Havana, to 
Guanajay, passing the delightful pine- 
apple groyning districts between Mari- 
anao and Hoyo Colorado, and on 
through the beautiful valley of the 
Caimito to the present terminus. The 
oUier division is known as the Guines 
division and runs southeasterly to 
Ouines and the great Providencia 
sugar mill. This latter division tra- 
verses one of the most famous sugar 
producing districts in Cuba as well 
as very important truck farming sec- 
tions. The other division is known 
as the Guanabacoa division, serving 
an increasingly popular suburb lying 
to the east of Havana. 

The total mileage of this system is 
75, all rock ballast, and laid with 70- 
pound rails, insuring speed and com- 
fort. All the rolling stock, which is 
•constantly being added to, as the in- 
•creasing traffic demands, is of the 
most approved type, and is equipped 
■with all the latest safety appliances 
which modern railroading has adopt- 
ed. The passenger coaches are espe- 
•cially large and comfortable. 

Its provisional terminal in Havana 
Is centrally located, on the grounds 
-formally occupied by the old Spanish 
arsenal, within a few blocks of the very 
'heart of the city and alongside of 
which a magnificent new union sta- 
•tion for use of this railroad and the 
United Railways of Havana is now be- 
ing constructed and which will be 
•opened for service in the summer of 

As a tourist line the Havana Cen- 
tral has, because of its exceptional fa- 
cilities and advantages and its ex- 

■ ceedingly picturesque routes, jumped 
into great popular favor, so that 

' hardly a visitor to Havana fails to en- 
joy one or more of the many delight- 

ful short trips available by this rail- 
way, practically at any hour of the 
day. And surely the tourist could 
not ask for a more pleasant way of 
seeing rural Cuba and its beautiful 
landscapes than by the comfortable 
cars of an electric railway. Charm- 
ing, picturesque vistas, resplendent 
in luxurious growths of palm, bam- 
boo, and other typically native trees, 
are passed, and prospects, the like of 
which would be difficult to see else- 

Guanajay trains, which run every hour 
from 5 a. m. to 8 p. m., turn to the 
right and pass the rapidly growing su- 
burb of Vibora, and the very import- 
ant town of Marianao, near which is 
located the famous Camp Columbia, 
once the headquarters of the United 
States Army of occupation, and now 
of the Cuban Army. 

Shortly after leaving Marianao the 
train enters the great pineapple-pro. 
ducing districts, where on both sides 

Tied phases of life in these quaint old 
towns. At Caimito the line enters an 
extensive valley of exceptional beau- 
ty, with white cliffs to the north, form- 
ing a pleasing background, the imme- 
diate vicinity of Caimito being ex- 
ceedingly picturesque. 

Although the principal industry in 
the region traversed is that of pine, 
apples, excellent tobacco of a very 
high grade is also cultivated on a 
large scale, extensive fields of which 


where, constantly loom up before the 
wondering gaze of the visitor. 


The trains on this division, after 
leaving the Arsenal terminal, skirt the 
shore of Havana Bay and pass under 
the shadow of the famous old fortress 
of Atar^s. to Underdown Junction, up 
to which point the trains of both the 
Guines and Guanajay divisions use 
the same tracks. At this point the 

of the railway, as far as Guanajay, 
acres upon acres of land are under 
this cultivation, the principal packing 
and shipping centers being at Arroyo 
Arenas, Punta Brava, Hoyo Colorado, 
and Caimito, all of which are charm- 
ing centers of activity where the tour- 
ist may interestingly enjoy the inter- 
vals between trains, the hourly ser- 
vice of the latter enabling the passen. 
ger to do this comfortably, and in this 
way become acquainted with the va- 

are passed on both sides of the rail- 
way; and besides pineapples and to- 
bacco, bananas and a great variety 
of native fruits and all kinds of veg- 
etables are also grown, for all of 
which latter there is always a ready 
siale in Havana. As the trains ap- 
proach Guanajay, we come upon fields 
of sugarcane, but the latter is not so 
extensively cultivated here as in the 
sections traversed by the Guines Di- 


situated thirty-five miles southwest 
of Havana on the Guines Division, 
which was visited by thousands of 
tourists last year. To meet this traf- 
fic, the Havana Central placed in ser- 
vice a special express train during the 
last tourist season, which left the Ar- 
senal Station, Havana, at 1:35 p. m., 
allowed about an hour and a quarter 
at the Mill, and arrived back in Ha- 
vana at 5 : 35 p. m. Excursions by this 
express train constituted an outing 
that was full of interest from begin- 
ning to end, and, as stated, became 
very popular. In view of this fact, 
the Havana Central Railroad will 
again during the present season put 
OB a special express tourist train to 
Providencia, which will observe prac- 
tically the same schedule as that of 
last year. 

The sugar crop lasts from early in 
December until about the middle of 
May, so that during the tourist sea- 
son the crop operations are at their 
height, and as every piece of machin- 
ery in this huge mill is practically all 
new, visitors are enabled to see the 
very latest methods of extracting raw 
sugar from the cane. For the furth- 
er convenience of the tourists visit- 
ing this mill, a refreshment room has 
been opened there. 

a picturesque resort on the seashore, 
about four miles northeast, where one 
of the finest of the modern hotels of 
Cuba, the "Campoamor," is located. 
A line of auto-busses also runs from 
Cojimar to Guanabacoa, so that a 
most interesting and delightful ex- 
cursion, taking in the whole of this 
division, may be undertaken. Under 
the splendid new management of the 
Hotel "Campoamor" the attractions of 
Cojimar to the pleasure loving public 
have been such that during the sum- 
mer season of 1911 it witnessed many 
important social functions, to which 
the elite of Havana resorted in great 

So varied is the character of tho 
service and the scenery on the Hava- 
na Central Railroad that splendid op- 
portunities are offered for delightful 
picnic parties and other similar out- 
ings, for which special cars or trains 
may be chartered by applying at the 
Passenger Department, located in 
Prado 118 (new 126), between Hotels 
Inglaterra and Telegrafo. 





Supplies Requirements of Cuba's 
Rapidly Advancing Economic in- 
terests — Purpose of Founders. 

The remarkable development of 
the Island of Cuba during the past 
few years has opened up business 
opportunities beyond number and 
hundreds of millions of dollars of 
American and European capital have 
been, and still are being, invested 
in the island. 

Among the most striking evidences 
of commercial progress in the young 
Republic during these recent years 
the rapid griDwth of Cuban banking 
institutions has been phenominal. 
Apart from the ordinary banks which 
have been exceptionally prosperous, 
particularly those with headquarters 
in Havana, other financial organiza- 
tions exist, equipped and empowered 
for effectively using both their own 
and trust funds in agricultural, in. 
dustrial and reality development and 
In conserving and promoting a wide 
range of individual and corporate 
business interests seeking invest- 

Among organizations of the latter 
class the Cuban-American Trust, 
organized under the laws of Massa- 
chusetts, is worthy of special men. 
tlon. Embodying the best features 
of a large number of strong finan- 
cial institutions in that conservative 
commonwealth it has been duly 
legalized and established in busi- 
ness with its chief headquarters in 
Havana, Cuba. It is the purpose of 
Its founders to render effective pub- 
lic service in meeting existing needs 
In the general commercial field and 
likewise to advance by sound and 
conservative business methods, im. 
portant special enterprises in Cuba 
and elsewhere in which it may from 
time to time acquire a substantial 

Authorized Capital. 

The authorized capital of the Trust 
is divided into 500,000 shares, each 
share representing equal and propor- 
tionate ownership in all of the as- 
sets, benefits and profits that may 
be realized under the duly recorded 
Declaration of Trust upon which as 
a legal basis the business in ques- 
tion has been established. 

Three-fifths of the authorized 
Trust shares have been subscribed 
and issued. The remaining two 
hundred thousand shares have been 
placed in the treasury and will 
be issued from time to time at 
the discretion of the trustees as ad. 
ditional working capital may be re- 

As a suggestion rather than a, 
limitation of the lines of business 
that may be taken up by the Cuban- 

hand in such securities or property 
real, personal or mixed, as may be 
deemed prudent after thorough inves- 

IWake and issue bonds, debentures, 
trust certificates and evidences of 
title and interest of all kinds, and 
make and execute mortgages and oth - 
er liens upon any and all kinds of 
property owned or held by the Trust; 

Construct, own or lease, vaults, 
suitable for the reception and deposit 

business enterprise which in the 
judgment of the trustees of the or- 
ganization may enhance its in- 
terests ; 

Maintain headquarters and busi. 
ness offices in Boston, Massachu- 
setts; Havana, Cuba, or elsewhere. 

Investment Desirability of Trust 

There is no business possessing 
greater safety combined with oppor- 
tunities for large and legitimate prof- 


American Trust, among other things 
it may: 

Transact a general trust business; 

Act as registrar and transfer agent 
of stocks, bonds and other securities; 

Act as trustee under mortgages, 
deeds of trust and other forms of 
trust agreements and certify any is- 
sue of bonds thereunder made; 

Make or negotiate loans on real 
or personal securities and invest its 
capital, surplus or other funds in 

of securities, merchandise or other 
property committed to it for safe- 
keeping, and issue or deal in nego- 
tiable receipts for property thus de. 
posited ; 

Take, purchase, hold, sell, convey, 
lease or improve property or estates 
of any kind, either real or personal, 
including gas, electric lighting, or 
heating plants, street railroads and 
other public utilities and franchises; 

Carry on and engage in any lawful 

it making than that in which the 
Cuban-American Trust is engaged. 

The rapid growth in the United 
States of institutions organized and 
conducted with objects kindred to 
those now proposed, the big dividends 
earned and paid to their shareholders 
and their large accumulations of sur- 
plus, evidence their importance as 
factors in the conduct of modern 
business and their investment value. 

For example, during the past five 

years, the dividends paid by the 
trust companies of the United States 
alone hav© aggregated over ?176,- 

The annual nef earnings of the trust 
companies of Boston for recent years 
have averaged over twenty per cent. 

Original holders of trust company 
shares, in addition to large dividends 
received have had the benefit of the 
increased book and market value of 
their holdings, often to the extent 
of several hundred per cent within 
comparatively a few years. No bet- 
ter evidence could be afforded of the 
value of this type of Investment. 
Special Cuban Opportunities. 

A careful study of local conditions, 
by the trustees of this organization 
and shareholders and associates 
resident in Cuba, has led to its se- 
lection as an important special field 
of operation. 

The Cuban-Amerioan Trust already 
owns and controls large assets based 
on Cuban realty, believed to be capa- 
ble of spe«dy and large increase in 
value by effective financing through 
the medium herein discussed. 

The Cuban realty above referred 
to has an investment value suffi- 
ciently attractive to have already en- 
listed the assured co-operation, on an 
extensive scale, of local and foreign 
banking institutions in its develop- 
ment. Opportunities are open to this 
institution to share in the ownership 
and administration on a highly re. 
munerative basis, of other extensive 
estates, in Cuba and elsewhere. 

The creation and sale of mortgages, 
profit-sharing bonds and other nego- 
tiable securities based on realty or 
industrial enterprises with ample 
margin of interest.bearing and divi- 
dend-earning safety and the sharing 
of profits occasioned by helpful 
stimulation of Cuba's rich unde- 
veloped resources opens a wide and 
profitable business field, which this 
institution, by reason of its equip, 
ment and connections, is peculiarly 
well fitted to enter. 

There is at present but one insti- 
tution in Cuba modeled on American 
lines and specializing in the methods 
of finance now under consideration. 

In entering the field of finance 
above outlined, the Cuban.American 
Trust fortunately has been able to 
form a permanent alliance with the 
Tropical Engineering and Construe- 


tion Company, one of the most en 
terprising and well-equipped com 
panies of its character now operating 
in Cuba. The advancement of new 
realty and industrial enterprises, of- 
fering opportunity for profitable co- 
operation in the work of financing 
and construction, will be materially 
facilitated by the combination thus 

Stimulating Forces Now Operative. 

Among many causes and agencies 
stimulating Cuban development that 
recently have been noticeably effect. 
Ive, the following are worthy of spe- 
cial mention: 

(1) Publicity upon the part of the 
Cuban National Government, special, 
ly through its efficient and progres- 
sive Department of Agriculture, 
Commerce and Labor, in giving wide 
circulation to reliable information re. 
garding the country's unsurpassed na. 
tural resources; 

(2) Declared purpose of the Na- 
tional Government to speedily inau. 
gurate and liberally finance irrigation 
works and to otherwise promote 
through Governmental agencies in- 
tensive agriculatural development; 

(3) Highly commendable and ef_ 
fective publicity work by the press, 
particularly The Havana Post, 
through special illustrated issues, 
widely circulated, at large expense, 
and that have made Cuba known and 
appreciated by thousands heretofore 
little acquainted with its attractions; 

(4) The great and growing influx 
of tourists from many lands, especial- 
ly the United States, who have come 
to see and returned home to tell of 
the charm of the Island and its un. 
developed riches. 

As a result of the above and other 
causes, both special and general, 
growth and development, city and 
rural, is making rapid strides. This 
is emphatically true of Havana, where 
realty values are rapidly appreciat. 
ing. Conservative judges predict 
that the population of Havana will 
increase from the present three hund. 
red thousand mark to half a million 
or more within the next five years. 
The demand, already far in excess of 
supply, for modern, convenient and 
centrally located dwellings or apart- 
ments, for permanent residents and 
transient visitors, will soon be great, 
ly intensified. The Trust proposes 
to help meet this demand. 

In the judgment of alert bankers 
and private capitalists, American. 
European and Cuban, familiar with 
these conditions, it will be difficult 
to find anywhere better opportunitieu 
for immediate employment of capital 
than in the purchase, improvement 
by methods, and reselling, 
of carefully selected realty, centrally 
located in leading Cuban cities, par- 
ticularly Havana, and of rural estates 
having easy access to good transpor. 


Treasury and other National Govern- 
ment buildings and also of the lead- 
ing banking institutions of the city. 

Here in the Loriente Building, a 
modem tire-proof structure, the Cu- 
ban.American Trust has established 
its principal Cuban headquarters. 

No feature is more important in in- 
suring success of this institution than 
its executive mlauagement Of this 
fact the Trustees are fully cognizant. 
In acceptance of the responsibilities 

Correspondence Invited 

Correspondence is desired and in- 
vited with those who may be in need 
of any services capable of being ren. 
dered by this Trust. Information re- 
garding Cuba, compiled from Govern- 
mental and other equally reliable 
sources, will be cheerfully furnished 
upon request. 

The Trust has at its command agri- 
cultural, industrial and legal experts 
who for reasonable compensation will 


the address given below: Cuban 
American Trust, Loriente Building, 
Amargura and San Ignacio Streets! 
Havana, Cuba. 


Is Logical Point of Importation for 
Northern Coast of Oriente Prov- 
ince — Has Large Hotel. 


tation facilities, especially by water, 
and capable of economical develop- 
ment by irrigation. Such properties 
and profit-making opportunities the 
Cuban-American Trust owns or con- 

Location of Havana Headquarters. 

In beginning business in Havana, 
the location selected is near the heart 
of the financial district within three 
to five minutes' walk of the general 
Postoffice, the Custom House, the 

committed to them in taking over, 
holding and using the assets now 
owned, or that may be later acquired 
by the Trust, it will be their constant 
aim to maintain, and perpetuate 
through their successors, a perma- 
nent policy of serviceableness to the 
public, conservation or equitable dis- 
tribution to shareholders of profits 
fairly earned and a square deal for all 
having business relations with this | 
institution. ,' 

attend promptly to any business or 
prepare any special reports that may 
be desired. 

For information of interest to in- 
vestors, or others, in relation to mat. 
ters herein mentioned or suggested, 
schedule of assets and terms upon 
which a limited number of persons 
may become shareholders, inquirers 
are respectfully invited to call upon 
or write the undersigned at 45 Milk 
street, Boston, Massachusetts, or at 

Antilla, on Nipe bay, north coast 
of Oriente province, is a well 
equipped port. There are at Antilla 
three large warehouses used prin- 
cipally for the storage of sugar await- 
ing shipment; there are also three 
tanks for storing molasses of a ca- 
pacity of 500,000 gallons each. The 
dockage facilities are owned by The 
Cuba Railroad Company. Depth of 
water at the docks is twenty-three 
feet and four or five ships find room 
to come alongside at a time. The 
port is served by the Munson Line 
and by the Royal Mail S'^nam Packet 
Company. It is the logical point of 
exportation for all merchandise origi- 
nating in the east end of Cuba along 
the trunk line of the Cuba Railroad 
and north of it, which seeks a for- 
eign market; it is the logical port of 
entry for goods imported for the sup- 
ply of this region. 

There is at Antilla a new hotel 
owned and operated by The Cuba 
Railroad Company — a big concrete 
building, exceedingly well furnished. 
Along the two main streets of the 
town are the homes of residents — the 
concrete cottages of company em- 
ployes and the frame bungalows and 
"shacks" of their neighbors. On the 
wooded knoll above the town where 
wild flowers grow in profusion it is 
planned to lay out a park. From 
that eminence the view to be had 
of the town, and of all the region 
roundabout, is ample reward for the 
exertion of the climb. One sees all 
Nipe bay — a land-locked expanse of 
water so wide it is a small sea in it- 
self — enclosed by green shores, some 
rising immediately into picturesque 
hills. The blue haze of the Mayari 
mountains darkens the horizon to th<j 
south and east. 

Sugar cane in Cuba grows in new 
land from fifteen to twenty years 
from one planting. 






No More Interesting Sight Is Availa- 
ble to Tourist Than a Visit to a 
Large Factory. 

Havana, famous the world over for 
its incomparable cigars, is being vis. 
ited each year by an increasing num- 
ber of tourists practically all of whom 
include in their sight-seeing programs 
a visit to one of the larger and more 
easily accessible cigar factories. The 
Cabanas, Meridiana and Villar & 
Villar factories at Zulueta 10, situated 
in the heart of the city are visited by 
thousands of tourists during the win- 
ter season and the Henry Clay and 
Bock & Co., Ltd., the largest manu- 
facturers in the city, and exporters 
of over 50 per cent of the total Ha. 
vana cigars shipped from Cuba, which 
own these and other world-renowned 
brands, such as Henry Clay, Agui!a ds 
Oro (Beck & Co.), Garcia and Caro- 
lina, make it a point to see that the 
visitors are cordially received and 
shown all the interesting details in 
connection with this important Cu- 
ban industry. Only a very small por- 
tion of Havana cigar smokers, 
however, have this opportunity to gain 
at first hand a general idea of how 
Havana cigars are made. 

A volume would be required to give 
a detailed account of the manufacture 
of Havana cigars, from the planting 
of the tobacco, and to describe the va- 
rious processes through which the leaf 
passes before it is finally made to as. 
sume one of the hundreds of various 
sizes and shapes of cigars exported 
from Cuba. 

The salient points, however, can be 
outlined in a few words and will 
probably be of personal interest to the 
innumerable subjects of My Lady Nic- 
otine's Court, to Whom the Havana 
cigar conveys hidden messages of 
cheer, comfort and good fellowship, 
which are only revealed through the 
magic touch of fire. The aromatic 
smoke conjures visions of sunny days 
with deep blue cloudless skies, moon- 
lit tropical nights, and the air castles 
we rear in the pale blue haze have for 
their corner.stones the subtle blend- 
ing by fairy hands of dream fabrics 
with the heavy dews. 

But before these messages can be 

forwarded to Her Majesty's subjects, 
there are long, anxious periods of 
preparation of which they never know, 
and the message contains no hint of 
these worries. 

Tobacco, as is fitting for a plant 
designed by Nature for a mission of 
such delicacy, is extremely sensitive 
to cold or heat, to drouth or rain, and 
even to the direction of the winds. 
From October, therefore, (when the 
plants are usually taken from the 
seed beds and transplanted), to 
March, when the cutting or harvest- 
ing begins, is an anxious period of 
constant watchfulnes and care for 
the grower. Even after the tobacco 
is cut and is hanging on poles in the 
hot tobacco barns in the first curing 
process, the danger is not entirely 
past, for it must be very carefully 
handled. On the oare given it after 
it has been selected and graded, ac- 
cording to size, quality and tsxture 
of leaf, and on the judgment exer- 
cised by the manufacturer as to just 
the right time to use the leaf to se- 
cure the best results, depends largely 
the quality of the finished product. 
All these points carefully watched, and 
with signs intelligently interpreted, 
spell success in the manufacture of 
good cigars. 

The tobacco having been cut and 
cured in the barns (although this does 
not end the curing process by any 
means) and having been properly 
sorted and graded, is packed in bales 
and shipped to Havana. After furth- 
er curing in bales it is distributed to 
the various factories and used ac- 
cording to the requirements of the 
different markets ordering cigars 
For Spain and for Cuba's home con- 
sumption the heaviest tobacco is in 
demand and the call in these two 
markets for Intimidad (Caruncho 
"Brevas"), a dark heavy-bodied aro- 
matic cigar, used by men who have 
smoked for years and to whom the 
quality is of first importance, and 
appearance of minor consideration, 
often exceeds the supply. South and 
Central America also require full- 
bodied cigars; England, one of the 
world's largest consumers, requires 
cigars of a different type; France and 
Germany, types more or less the 
same; while for the United States and 
Canada, the lightest types are de- 
manded; and so on for the various 
world markets. 

Since the color and texture of wrap- 
per leaves cannot be controlled by 
the grower to any appreciable extent, 
it is impossible to supply the modern 
demand for light color wrappers, 
which demand is based on the entirely 
erroneous idea that the color of the 
wrapper is an index of the strength 
of the cigar. While it is true to a 
very limited extent that the color of 
the wrapper affects the strength, 
representing, as it does, only a small 
part of the whole cigar, it is only rea- 
sonable to state that this factor is of 
minor importance, the real strength 
depending on the class of tobacco 
used in the filler. If, for example, a 
^ cigar carrying a blend intended for 
the United . States market, where 
heavy-bodied cigars are not in de- 
mand, should be given a dark wrap- 
per, the strength would not be no- 
ticeably affected, although, so great 
is the power of suggestion, that men 
who are open to conviction on other 
points can never be brought to admit 
[this assertion. There is not the 
slightest doubt, however, that the 
statement is true, and confirmed 
smokers are gradually admitting it 
' and laying less stress on color and 
more on quality. 

The filler and wrapper used in Ha- 
vana cigars is handled in entirely dif- 
ferent ways. When the filler bale is 
opened the tobacco leaf is moistened 
and the main stem removed — the 
stripping process. It is then packed 
in barrels to which the air has ready 
access, and is sometimes kept in these 
barrels as long as two years before it 
is considered suitable for use — this 
curing process depending on the na- 
ture of the tobacco, the amount of 
time it has already spent in bales 
and other considerations. The filler 
is then blended, various types and 
strengths of tobacco being used, de- 
pending on the market for which the 
order is intended and the price of 
the cigars which are to be manufac - 
tured. A large factory like the fa, 
mous Corona factory will have from 
ten to twelve different standard 
filler combinations, and special blends 
are made from time to time, as occa- 
sion arises, to fill the requirements of 
special orders. On the proper curing 
and expert blending of the filler de- 
pends the individuality of the brand 
and its success. 

The wrapi>er, on the other hand, is 




moistened the day before it is to be 
worked, stripped and delivered to ex- 
pert leaf selectors, who once more 
grade it according to color, size of 
leaf and texture, and hand it 
over to the cigarmakers for imme- 
diate use. The leaf selecting room or 
"rezagado" in a large factory is one 
of the most important of the factory's 
departments, for the highest priced 
raw material is handled here, and 
when it is considered that wrapper 
bales cost from $150 for inferior 
grades, to as high as |1,000 for the 
highest grades of large, clean leaves, 
it can readily be seen that expert 
work is required in this department It 
the factory is to be managed on an 
economical basis. In some of the 
larger factories, like the famous Ca. 
banas factory, there are as many as 
eight or ten of these "barrel-men" se- 
lecting leaf for the requirements of 
the cigarmakers working on various 
sized and priced cigars and the chief 
selector enjoys an expert's wage to 
which his long training entitles him. 

The cigarmiaker is given his filler 
and wrappers (the former weighed 
and the latter counted) and under his 
expert hands the material is made to 
assume one of the thousand shapes in 
which Havama cigars are put on the 
market. It is marvelous to see the 
dexterity with which the skilled work- 
man selects and arranges the filler 
and the ease and expertness with 
which he manipulates the expensive 
wrappers. The appearance of the ci- 
gar depends largely on his skill and 
on fine sizes high rolling prices are 

His only tool is a sharp cigar, 
maker's knife with which he trims 
the wrapper to meet his requirements, 
and he selects by his eye and his 
sharpened sense of touch just enough 
n^aterial to make a cigar of the proper 
length (it cannot vary by the 1-16 of 
an inch), and, more difficult still, the 
right amount to preserve the abso- 
lutely uniform thickness of the par- 
ticular size on which he is working. 
It is absorbingly interesting to watch 
the skilled cigarmaker at work and 
note the facility which his long ap- 
prenticeship and practice have given 
him . 

The cigars, after they are com. 
pleted, are turned in at the end of 
the day, or whenever the cigarmaker 
has completed a rueda or media rueda 

(literally, a wheel or half wheel), a 
bundle of 100 or 50 cigars — and these 
are stored in cedar cabinets until 
there are sufficient cigars prepared 
tor the cigar selectors to begin their 
part of the work. The cigars are not 
stored, however, until they have been 
closely examined each morning by the 
factory foreman and his sub-foremen, 
who inspect the cigars very closely in 
all details, particular attention being 
given in this inspection to high-grade 
and uniform workmanship and the 
proper tilling of cigars without pro- 
ducing excessive weight. 

It is quite as interesting to watch 
the cigar selectors — the aristocracy of 
the cigar industry — at their highly 
specialized work of sorting cigars, 
differentiating betw-een shades and 
types which to the untrained observer 
are identical. From 90 to 100 shades 
and types are currently recognized on 
the selecting table and in very close se- 
lections on very fine sizes it is not 
unusual to find even a larger num. 

After they are selected and packed 
in their boxes, which have already 
been given preliminary trimming, if 
the cigars are to carry bands, they 
are turned over to the banding girls, 
who remove the cigars from the box, 
place a ring on each cigar, and re- 
place them exactly in their original 
form. The boxes are then sent once 
more to the trimming room and the 
final outside edging and labels affixed 
and the cigar is ready for its journey. 

The salient points here mentioned 
may be seen to the best advantage 
in a factory like CabaFias, which rep- 
resents the last word in a modern 
Havana cigar factory, and where par- 
ticular attention is paid to the com- 
fort of visitors. The innumerable 
details connected with the industry 
which occupies such an important 
part in the welfare of the island, must 
be left to the imagination — and the 
imagination can well be employed, 
since the visitors may see cigars des. 
tined for a Royal Court, for a million - 
aire's humidor, or as a satisfying and 
soothing reward of the day's work 
for men in the remotest corners ot the 
world, for Havana cigars enjoy a 
world-wide distribution. 

It is a novelty to visit a factory 
where there is no whirring of ma- 
chinery, and where quiet reigns ex- 
cept for the chatting of the work. 

men, or the voice of the factory 
"reader" entertaining them with the 
news of the day, a late novel, or some 
solid food for thought. 

Visitors to Havana, even if not 
smokers, should not fail to visit the 
main office and Cabanas factory of 
the Henry Clay and Bock & Co. Ltd., 
at Zulueta 10. They will be cordially 
received and the visit is sure to prove 


Fragments Are Still to Be Seen— Was 
High and Massive Structure 
One Hundred Years Building. 

Not tar from La Punta, at Monser- 
rate and Refugio streets, are rem. 
nants of the old city wall. Another 
fragment has been preserved on Mon- 
serrate street, near Teniente Rey. 
These ancient landmarks indicate the 
boundary of old Havana. The wall 
extended from the shore of the har- 
bor east of the Arsenal, along a line 
east ot the Prado, to the water front 
again at a point in line with the Car- 
cel. The Punta, Carcel, Prado, Ta- 
con Theatre and Campo de Marte 
were outside the wall, "extramuros." 
The wall was a high and massive 
structure, which consumed a century 
in building (from 1633 to 1740), at a 
cost of $700,000. A moat extended 
around the outer side, and beyond 
this were earth works. Entrance 
was by drawbridges over the moat, 
and then through narrow arched gate, 
ways, which were closely guarded by 
soldiers and were shut at 11 o'clock 
at night, except when there was an 
operative or dramatic performance at 
the Tacon, on which occasions the 
Puerta de Monserrate. which was op- 
posite the theatre, was kept open un- 
til the play was over. Early morn- 
ing saw outside the gates a daily 
concourse ot thousands ot horses and 
mules laden with panniers of market 
provisions, pressing and crowding 
and jostling for place to get into the 
city when the gates opened. 

+ _ 

The natural resources of Cuba are 
so great that the surface has hardly 
been scratched. 


A number of successful American 
colonies are to be found scattered in 
the different provinces. 




Gran f ^ Jm 1 * ^/ 



Has Long Been One of the Most Fa- 
mous Brands of Havana Cigars, 
Known the World Over. 

No more famous cigar exist than 
that made hy the Romeo and Juliet 
factory, situated at Belascoain 2A, Ha- 
vana. It has for many years been the 
solace of smokers the world over, and 
with each passing year becomes more 
and more popular. 

At the Romeo and Juliet factory vis- 
itors are always welcome and the 
management takes pleasure In show- 
ing the tourist over the large building, 
explaining in detail the many pro- 
cesses through which the tobacco has 
to pass before it is delivered to the 
smoker in the delicious form of a Ro- 
meo and Juliet cigar. 

The factory buys its tobacco from 
the most famous vegas in the Partido 
and Vuelta Aba jo sections. It is 
then selected and baled with the ut 
most care. Once it arrives at the 
factory the care is continued through- 
out various processes until the tobacco 
is turned out in the finished product. 

In tercios (bales) it Is first "laid 
down" for inspection, tested as to 
quality and burn, and "registered" by 
the manager of the factory, who, hav- 
ing done this, puts on the counter- 
marks that are used In the factory to 
designate the grade and tiempo (time) 
that such tobacco may be round to 
be in at the time registered. 

After the notations are put on bales 
and the records taken, these bales are 
then stored by vegas, which in cigar 
language means according to the plan- 
tation on which the tobacco was 
grown, in tongas or stacks. The man- 
ner in which the bales are piled is 
also done according to the tiempo of 
the tobacco, since in certain condition, 
especially when new, they are piled 
sometimes high sometimes low, on 
ends or on one side, according to the 
quality and calentura or fermentation 
in which received. This process of 
keeping tobacco in condition is one of 
the most important factors in the 
manufacture of Habano cigars, for on 
it depends the proper curing neces- 
sary before the leaf is taken from 
the bale and put into work. It is at 
this time that the climat'c conditions 

prevailing in Havana, the certain defi- 
nite degree of heat and atmospheric 
moisture here, most affects the mer- 

Those bales, if the tobacco is filler, 
weigh from 80 to 120 pounds; wrap- 
per bales weigh from 50 to 100 pounds, 
according to the grade and class of 

In addition to the revision or regis- 
tering of wrappers, countermarks are 
also put on these bales, designating 
the range of sizes for which they 
are best adapted, according to the 
brand in which they are to be used, 
as well as the "type," or the market 
or country for which they are best 
suited. The averag' high-grade Ha- 
bano factory generally works tobaccos 
from three to five crops, and as to- 
bacco Is bought for their express use 
from the districts most adapted to 
their brand, they can in this way 
"go" from one crop into another and 
maintain their individuality or quali- 
ty, which is made possible by the 
manner of handling tobacco in the 
blending room. 

Filler tobacco, like wrapper, in the 
bale, arrives bound into manojos or 
carats, each of which coitains four 
gavillas or hands. Each gavilla, when 
time has come to work up that par- 
ticular lot, is shaken to loosen the 
leaves, separating one from another; 
it is then "cased," or wet, and after- 
wards "shaken out." After this pro- 
cess the tobacco is spread out to air 
and several hours afterwards it is 
either piled in baskets or in vats to 
get it into condition to be "stripped." 

This preparation is made one day 
for the work of the day following. 

The stripping of the leaf is done by 
girls, who, after removing the stem 
from the leaf, spread it out in little 
piles on boards, in heaps from three 
to six inches high; it is then put on 
racks and dried, that is to say, put 
into proper condition for the last or 
final curing process, which consists 
in carefully packing the tobacco in 
barrels which are well ventilated, and 
put away in the filler loft where the 
tobacco is kept from two weeks to a 
year, according to its grade and Qual- 

The next process is that of blend- 
ing, which is to mix the proper grades 
of tobaccos together for the purpose 
of making the "blend" or liga as it is 
called in Spanish for the different 

sizes and grades which the factory ia 
making. There is no stipulated num- 
ber of these so-called blends, but 
there are on an average eight or ten 
standard, and sometimes the "spe- 
cials" will run a great many more. 
After the tobacco is properly blended 
and inspected, it is put into large 
cases or departments and delivered 
to the galera or rolling room to be 
worked into cigars. 

All the foregoing detail refers to 

As to wrappers, there are some- 
times from 80 to 100 bales open at 
the same time, from which the to- 
bacco is withdrawn in carats and used 
according to the requirements of the 
day. The process of casing and use 
of the wrapper is under the direct 
management of the foreman of the 
selecting department, whose business 
it is to keep up with the require- 
ments of each size and the market for 
which the cigars are intended. Ho 
also inspects selections and withdraws 
the wrappers from the bales accord- 
ingly; he sees personally to the cas- 
ing or wetting of the same. 

As soon as it is withdrawn from 
the bale, the wrapper is shaken up, 
the leaves being separated one from 
the other to insure to each the proper 
amount of moisture; they are then 
cased, and later spread out, the water 
being allowed to evaporate. In this 
shape the tobacco is let to stand from 
three to five hours, after which it is 
divided into tareas (day's work) for 
the wrapper strippers, and placed in 
small barrels or kegs, for delivery to 
the selecting department in time for 
work on the following day. 

After being stripped it is given over 
to the different selectors — first, sec- 
ond, assistant and third — as may have 
been designated; from it they make 
the separations, or selections, for the 
sizes of cigars which may be making 
at that time. The selections are made 
as to size, color, texture and quality, 
as well as differently for the differ- 
ent countries where the cigars are 
marketed and for the specialties the 
factory may be producing. There are 
probably from 75 to 100 different se- 
lections to make, depending of course, 
entirely upon the requirements of the 
factory concerned. 

After selections are made the wrap- 
pers are counted out in small pads of 
25 and delivered to the cigarmakers, 




Chemical Analysis of the Earth That 
Grows the Very Best To- 
bacco Known. 

Two of the several types of soil 
peculiarly adapted to the production 
of tobacco are the red soil and the 
light sandy loam of western Cuba, 
analysed by Professor R. W. Stark, 
former chief of the chemistry depart- 
ment of the experiment station at 
Santiago de las Vegas. 

"A peculiarity of the red soil," Pro- 
fessor Stark remarks, in the Second 
Report on the Station's work, "is that 
though containing much clay and very 
little sand, still the best type of this 
soil is so light in texture that it pos- 
sesses many of the characteristics of 
a sandy soil and produces excellent 
cigar tobacco. However, the best 
type of tobacco is grown in the 
Vuelta Abajo district of Pinar del Rio 
upon a light sandy loam underlaid 
by a hard sandy clay subsoil. The 
color of this soil varies from a gray 
to a dull red. Owing to the charac- 
ter of the subsoil, It Is quite reten- 
tive of moisture. 

The analysis of typical samples of 
this soil are given below: 

periment conducted with the soils 
from which Sample No. 976 was tak- 
en, showed that phosphoric acid had 
more effect on the tobacco crop than 
either nitrogen or potash. This soil 
is distinctly acid, a condition which 
is believed commonly prevails in the 
region. With the leaching away of 
the lime, probably most of the phos- 
phoric acid present has been combin- 
ed with iron and aluminum to form 
difficultly available compounds, hence 
the ready response of the soil to an 
application of phosphorus." 


The old town of Guines is situated 
in an extensive valley which Is one 
of the most famous sugar producing 
districts in Cuba, although the immed- 
iate vicinity of Guines is given over 
almost entirely to truck farming. 
The soil of this valley is one of the 
very richest in the Island and is well 
irrigated by several deep streams. A 
couple of hours spent here in con- 
junction with a visit to Providencia 
Sugar mill will well repay the visitor. 
Besides the special tourist train to 
Providencia, Guines, is served by 
eleven others to and from Havana 


178 613 976 

Number of Samples. 


Surface Subsoil 

each of whom after receiving his 
wrappers gets the filler corresponding 
to their size or the cigar that he is 
making, and proceeds to the rolling. 

The cigars are revised during the 
day by the cigar foreman, who exam- 
ines the shape, length, workmanship 
and condition of the cigars rolled by 
each man. On the following morning 
a general revision is given the pre- 
ceding day's work, in the revision 

After this general revision the ci- 
gars are transferred to the packing 
department and arranged in escapa- 
rates (cabinets) of cedar, where they 
are kept from three days to a week 
before they are packed, in order that 
they may dry out. 

When proper condition has been at- 
tained they are assorted on large 
tables in the following manner: The 
escogedor (picker) starts his table in 
two grades, the seco (dry) and man- 
chado (glossy) ; tnen these two 
grades, that is to say, seco and man- 
chado, are subdivided into colors 
which are shaded from maduro to 
claro. Each is separated into from 35 
to 50 piles of distinct shades of color. 
The Spanish packing is based upon 
from 80 to 100 separate or subdivided 
colors. The escogedor also throws out 
any "seconds" and arranges the cigars 
to be packed in the style and quality 

The envasador (packer) then packs 
the cigars in boxes or bundles accord- 
ingly. After these cigars are packed 
they are put into a press and given 
the final pressure then branded, and, 
after final inspection by the manager 
of the packing department, their col- 
ors are marked and the last box trim- 
ming is put on. They are then ready 
for shipment. 

All employes or operatives of all 
departments in a Havana factory are 
required to serve an apprenticeship of 
from two to three years before being 
admitted as qualified in their art, and, 
after having qualified in their line 
they are started at the bottom and 
must work their way up to positions 
wherein they handle the higher 


Cuba Is the vacation spot of Amer- 


The trade wind is always with 

Insoluble matter 






Ferric oxide 


Phosphoric acid 

Sulphuric acid 

Carbon dioxide 

Water and organic matter 

"A comparison of these analyses 
with those of the red soil shows that 
while these types of soils differ 
greatly in chemical composition, 
nevertheless they are about equally 
supplied with plant food. 

"It will be observed that these 
soils are better supplied with phos- 
phoric acid than they are with potash 
and nitrogen, and yet a fertilizer ex- 








































6.004 4.765 4.115 3.761 

.204 .168 .146 .064 


Pinar del Rio, city and barrio (ap- 
prox., ward) derives its name from a 
hog ranch named Pinar del Rio be- 
cause of its location by the stream 
among pine trees. It is believed to be 
the same estate title to which one 
Juan Rodriguez solicited in March, 


D E 







Witli a capital and surplus of $6,- 
000.000, and resourecs in Cuba of 
over $30,000,000, a collection business 
of over $107,000,000 annuallly, an ex- 
change business of over $250,000,000 
annually, and a daily cash movement 
in its head office without counting 
its nineteen branches, of $3,200,000, 
the National Bank of Cuba is an in- 
stitution to command respect in any 
country in the world. 

This bank has been the despostary 
of the Cuban government since the 
latter was established in 1902 and was 
also depositary of the two American 
governments of intervention. Each 
succeeding government has continued 
its business with this institution. 

The capital of the National Bank of 
Cuba is $5,000,000 United States gold, 
and it was contributed from all over 
the financial world. Fourteen coun- 
tries in all furnished the funds for the 
capital. The resources of the bank 
in Cuba are more than thirty millions 
of dollars. 

This bank is a cosmopolitan insti- 
tution in every way. Doing business 
with all the countries of the world it 
requires men of several nationaliteis 
among its officials and employes. The 
president is an American, but its di- 
rectors are representatives of four 
nationalities, Americans, Spanish, 
Cuban and French, and its staff is 
composed of twelve nationalities. 
Spanish and English is spoken by all 
of the staff coming in contact with the 
public and the correspondence is con- 
ducted in the four modern languages. 

The National Bank of Cuba is pro- 
vided with all of the departments of 
the big banks of the world, including 
a Tourist and Ladies Department. 

A banking school in connection 
with the American Institute of Bank- 
ing is conducted for the education of 
the employes and admirable results 
have already been seen by this pro- 
gressive movement. 

The bank's collections run into 
very large figures and its field of 
operation extends all over the world. 
Last year this business alone amount- 
ed to $107,000,000. 

The exchange business of the bank, 
done through its correspondents lo- 
cated in every important city on the 

Globe, last year exceeded $250,000,000 
and bids fair to greatly exceed these 
figures before another twelve months 
have elapsed. 

The amount of cash handled daily 
at the head office of the National 
Bank of Cuba, without counting that 
handled by its nineteen branches 
throughout the island and in New 
York, will give any one unacquainted 
with Cuba a startling idea of the isl- 
and's financial importance. This 

correspondents are among the princi- 
pal banks of the world. 

The splendid steel and concrete 
building on Obispo street is the first 
structure of this kind erected in Cuba 
and its branch buildings throughout 
the island are of the same construc- 
tion and all are uniform in design. 

Havana's smooth macadam calza- 
das make the best automobile race 
courses to be found anywhere. 


Cubans call a person by a sound 
of the tongue and lips — P-s-t. which 
sounds something like a hiss. In try- 
ing to attract the attention of any one 
this method is always used whether 
the one called is a friend or a coach- 


The world offers no more beauti- 
ful sight than sunset on the Malecon. 


amount last year averaged $3,200,000 
per day. 

A branch of this bank is located at 
No. 1 Wall Street, corner of Broad- 
way. This branch was originally lo- 
cated there for the convenience of 
travelers to and from Cuba, but has 
jrown into a very important adjunct 
to the bank because of its constantly 
increasing excbange business. 

The bank is a member of the Amer- 
ican Bankers' Association, and its 


Foreign banks have more than us- 
ual opportunities in Cuba for the car- 
rying on of a large and diversified 
business. They are not prohibited by 
the laws of Cuba and no limitations 
are placed upon their operations, al- 
though the same is not true of Cuban 

Frost never comes to Cuba. 


!s One of the Most Delightful Places 
in Havana — Cuisine and Ser- 
vice Are Unexcelled. 

Havana is so interesting to the 
newcomer that he is apt to often 
forget the inner man while indulging 
in the optical feasts to be enjoyed on 
every hand. Sooner or later, however, 
the realization comes that nature de- 

mands something else and one's 
thoughts are turned toward gastro- 
nomic things. In this respect if he 
knows where to go he is most fortu- 
nate. There are several very fine 
restaurants in Havana, but there is 
only one where the diner can be seat- 
ed high above the ground, where the 
air is always fresh and delightful, 
and where a most picturesque scene 
is spread out before him. This one 
place is the Polyteama Restaurant. 

At this restaurant one can obtain 
as elaborate or as simple a meal as 
he desires. It is especially noted for 
its elaborate table d'hote while its 
3. la carte ser:)ice is without super- 
ior any where. 

The cuisine of The Polyteama is in 
charge of a chef who is master of his 
art. He has been in charge of fam- 
ous resorts in France and was im- 
ported to Havana especially for the 

A great variety is achieved in the 
table d'hote service. The following 
menu for the evening meal is a fair 
average of what can be expected at 
this popular restaurant: 

Hors d'Oeuvre 
Soup Anna 

Petite Marmite 
Lobster Newburg 

Broiled Sliced Red Snapper 
Chicken & la Maryland 

Roast Beef English Style 
Cauliflower Souffle Graten 

Vegetable Salad 

Peaches Melba 

All of the waiters of the Polyteama 
speak English and are carefully train- 
ed for their work. Better service in 
this particular is not to be obtained 
in Havana nor anywhere else for that 

A special feature of the Polyteama 
is its ideal location for banquets. In 
connection with the restaurant is a 
great expanse of roof garden and 
several hundred banqueters can be 
dined al fresco under the most ideal 
surroundings. Amidst thousands of 
electric lights, in the restaurant it- 
self and with a view of the city 
ablaze with light in every direction, 
one can easily imagine himself din- 
ing in fairyland. 





Offers Excellent Facilities to People 
Requiring the Services of Such 
an Institution. 

To all persons having interests in 
Cuba, requiring the services of a 
trust company, the facilities offered 
by the Trust Company of Cuba will 
be of especial interest. 

This company, organized something 
less than six years ago, along the 
same lines as followed in the organi- 
zation and operation of trust com- 
panies in the United States, began 
business in the building. No. 31 Cuba 
street. Since their entrance into the 
financial affairs of the island they 
have paid dividends on their $500,000 
capital stock of $175,000, and have 
an earned surplus, including profits 
not yet set aside, of upwards of 
$80,000. Their total assets amount 
to $1,155,000 and the officers are men 
of high standing and responsibility 
and long experience in Cuba. 

The Trust Company of Cuba re- 
ceives commercial deposits, makes 
loans on collateral, receives savings 
accounts, acts as trustee for bond is- 
sues of corporations and other capac- 
ities; buys and sells foreign exchange 
and issues travelers' checks and let- 
ters of credit on all foreign countries. 
The real estate department acts as 
agent in the buying and selling of 
property, placing of money on mort- 
gage, collection of rents and interest, 
and other like duties, and the proper- 
ties held by this company for sale, 
and opportunities offered for mort- 
gage investment or purchase, are sec- 
ond to none in Cuba. This depart- 
ment is equipped with very complete 
maps of all parts of Cuba and sur- 
rounding Havana. 

To such an extent has the volume 
of business transacted by the Trust 
Company of Cuba grown that their 
present quarters have become alto- 
gether too small, for which reason 
they have recently purchasPd the 
property No. 53 Obispo street, Ha- 
vana, with approximately 60 feet of 
street frontage, on which they will 
erect, in the heart of the financial 
district, a modern building adapted 
to their requirements. 

As the only organized trust com- 

pany in Cuba, and by reason of its 
organization and the character and 
ability of the officers directing its 
affairs peculiarly fitted to serve the 
interests of those interested in busi- 
ness matters in Cuba, the future of 
the company in its .handsome new 
location is full of promise of profit- 
aljle relations with a large and ever 
growing clientele. 

They are members of the American 
Bankers' Association and issue the 


Most of the photographs used in 
this special edition of The Havana 
Post were furnished by The American 
Photo Company, Wark and Messen. 
ger, proprietors, of Obispo 70, Havana, 
as indeed are most of the very hand, 
some pictures sent abroad by resi. 
dents here and tourists. They do 
more to advertise the place than all 

ish.American Iron Company at Nipe 
Bay, he furnished pictures which were 
later gathered into an album Captain 
Huston distributed among business 
friends. They pronounced it the fin. 
est advertisement Cuba has yet re- 
ceived in her character as a coming 
country. The book received flatter- 
ing press notices abroad. 

Mr. Wark is the official photo, 
grapher of The Western Railway of 
Havana, which has panelled its best 


Batabano Is Famous for Its Sponge 
Fisheries and Its Giant Turtles. 


travelers' checks as authorized by 
that association. The officers of the 
Trust Company of Cuba are as fol- 

Norman H. Davis, president. 

O. H. Hornsby, vice president and 

Claudio G. Mendoza, vice president. 

J. M. Hapgood assistant treasurer. 

Rogelio Carbajal, secretary. 

W. M. Whitner, manager real estate 

the fine writing of all the folders 
and guide books published. 

The American Photo Company 
is an enterprising institution. Mr. 
Wark Is the official photographer for 
half a dozen companies whose gen- 
eral business is of a nature to need 
views such, for instance, as the 
Huston Contracting Company, of 
whose roads, in Pinar del Rio, build- 
ings in Havana, and very remarkable 
construction work done for the Span- 

coaches with his work, of the United 
Railways, and of The Cuba Railroad, 
and his views of scenes along their 
lines, from Guane to Santiago de 
Cuba, are hung in all the hotels of 
town, the ticket and railway offices 
of the United States, and distributed 
by tens of thousands in their illus- 
trated folders. 

Reaping and sowing are continu- 
ous in Cuba. 

Batabano is an interesting place. It 
is la port on the south coast of Cuba, 
famous for the sponge industry car- 
ried on in the waters thereabouts, 
and for the great number of giant 
turtles received there fo- shipment 
via Havana to the United States. Be- 
tween the islands around about Ba. 
tabano the sea water has a clouded 
and inilk-like appearance, so marked 
that Columbus, in one of his voyages 
of discovery, bottled some of it to 
take home and show King Ferdinand. 
Outside these islets the Caribbean 
sea is deeply blue, almost a sapphire 
shade, blending imperceptibly into the 
coloring of the sky, the latter, how- 
ever, being constantly filled with 
light, fluffy, drifting clouds that make 
the patches of blue sky seen between 
them seem even bluer by contrast. 
The trip to and from Batabano can 
be easily made in the afternoon and 
it never fails to intensely interest the 
tourist who makes it. 

The Isle of Pines. 

Batabano is best known to Ameri- 
cans as the port whence steamers sail 
thrice a week to (he Isle of Pines. 

The American steamer "Cristobal 
Colon," plying between Batabano and 
the Isle of Pines, was specially built 
for this service and is in every way 
up to date. The staterooms all have 
running water and are cool and com. 
fortable. There is, perhaps, no other 
trip in the world so delightful as the 
one on this steamer from Batabano 
to the Isle of Pines on a moonlit 
night. The calm tropical sea. over 
which there is always a gentle, cool 
breeze blowing, and the brilliant con- 
stellations overhead glistening in the 
clear atmosphere characteristic of the 
tropics, make the night on deck so 
seductive that, no matter how cool 
and comfortable the staterooms are, 
one feels that the open deck provides 
a chapter in life that may not easily 
be duplicated. 


Columbus saw Cuba and pronounced 
it good; others have been doing the 
same ever since. 


The lover of the antique will feel 
at home in Havana. 





Spanish Bank of the Island of Cuba 
Was Established in 1856 — Has 
Capital of $8,000,000. 

The Banco Espanol de la Isia de 
Cuba (The Spanish Bank of the Is- 
land of Cuba) is the oldest banking 
institution here. It %Tas founded in 
the year 1856, and during the past 
fifty-five years has safely passed 
through the difficult epochs which 
at different times assailed this coun- 

The capital of the Spanish Bank 
of the Island of Cuba is $8,000,000, 
and its total deposits are $9,800,000 
as shown by the general balance tak- 
en on June 30, 1911. Its loans and 
discounts at that time amounted to 

The island of Cuba will always 
owe a debt of gratitude to this bank 
because it was the only institution 
atle or willing to furnish money for 
the work of reconstruction after the 
destructive Ten Years' War and later 
after the War of 1895. Instead of 
foreclosing upon valuable properties 
at the close of these wars, as it 
could have done with enormous bene- 
fit to itself, this institution never did 
so in a single instance. On the con- 
trary it helped business elements 
start anew after the disastrous wars 
by making their payments so easy 
that they could gradually cover their 
indebtednes.i without being ruined. 
Other services have also been ren- 
dered to the country by this bank, 
and they are no less meritorious. 
Among these was the furnishing of 
money for circulation and the dis- 
counting of commercial paper, at re- 
duced rates, when the circumstances 
of the times would have made it pos- 
siblp to demand and obtain enormous 
rates. For this consideration alone, 
the island of Cuba owes a debt of 
gratitude, because it served to tide 
over more than one very difficult 

The prosperity of the bank is each 
year more evident than the one pre- 
ceding it, as a comparison of the 
balances will show. This is largely 
due to its president, its vice-presi- 
dent and the able staff of directors 
composed of the leading business men 
in Cuba. President Jos6 Marimon 

has shown himself to be a financial 
genius of a high oraer. What he has 
accomplished during the time he has 
been at the head of the Spanish Bank 
of the Island of Cuba is little short 
of miraculous. Besides modernizing 
this institution, h« has caused it to 
branch out in every direction after 
business and by December, 1911, 
there will have been established 
throughout the island a total of 
twenty branches covering all the most 

The board of directors of the 
bank includes the most conservative 
business men in Havana. The mem- 
bers follow: 

Manuel A. Suarez Cordoves. 

Ramon L6pez Fernandez. 

Carlos Quer. 

George Diguet. 

Ram6n P^rez Rodriguez. 

Jose Gomez y Gomez. 

Manuel Lozano Muiiiz. 

Manuel Hierro MS,rmoI. 

stock and bonds quoted on the stock 
exchange had increased in the same 
time $675,137. Loans and discounts 
also increased in the sum of $1,595,- 
031.16, and deposits and current ac- 
counts, no less satisfactory, reached 
$4,477,571, showing most eloquently 
the confidence which the institution 
enjoys in the commercial circles of 
this island. The high price at which 
its stock is quoted on the market ex- 
changes of the world shows the credit 


The Establishment in Cuba IVIeans the 
[ Loaning of iVIillions to Proper- 
ty Owners at Low Rates 


important towns outside of Havana. 

The bank's vice-president, Frank 
Steinhart, is the general manager of 
the Havana Electric Railroad, and the 
representative in Cuba of the great 
New York banking firm of Speyer 
and Company. Mr. Steinhart is one 
of the most powerful figures in 
Cub.i's financial world, and the ac- 
quisition of his expert council is but 
another instance of the farsighted 
policy of President Miarimon. 

Claudio Compan6 Llagostera. 

Pablo Boulanger. 

Enrique Shueg. 

Francisco Palacios. 

The progress of the Spanish Bank 
of the Island of Cuba has lately been 
more apparent than ever before. Dur- 
ing the six months from January 1 
to July 1, the available funds in all 
the branches and on deposit with 
other banks throughout the world had 
increased $1,091,630.74. Its assets of | 

it enjoys throughout the commercial 
centers of the world. Owing to these 
good relations enjoyed by the Spanish 
Bank of one Island of Cuba in the 
United States and Europe, the organi- 
zation of the Banco Territorial (Ter- 
ritorial Bank), was rendered easy. 
This latter bank has besn established 
to take part in no less important en- 
terprises inverting foreign capital in 
investments satisfactory to it and of 
immense benefit to the country. 

The need of a Territorial Bank, an 
institution loaning money on proper- 
ty at a reasonable rate of interest has 
long been very apparent in Cuba. Ow- 
ing to the lack of such a bank own- 
ers of valuable properties, in order 
to obtain ready cash have been com- 
pelled to pay enormous rates of in- 
terest for short term loans and many 
have seen their properties pass into 
the hands of the money lenders when 
had they been able to obtain reason- 
able terms, such as a mortgage bank 
could give they would have saved 
themselves with comparative ease. It 
was to supply this imperative need 
that El Banco Territorial de Cuba 
(The Territorial Bank of Cuba), was 

The bank was created by a law 
passed by the Cuban congress on July 
20, 1910, and modified by the law of 
February 21, 1911. The concession 
was authorized by presidential de- 
cree on September 19, 1910. The gen- 
eral board of stockholders elected Sr. 
Marcelino Diaz de Villegas, ©x-Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, as president. 
He was a man enjoying an enviable 
reputation throughout the Republic of 
Cuba, and his selection immediately 
gave additional confidence that the 
institution would be wisely conducted. 

The vice-president of the Territori- 
al Bank is Frank Steinhart, the Cu- 
ban representative of the great bank- 
ing firm of Speyer and Co., of New 
York, general manager of the Ha- 
vana Electric Railroad, vice-president 
also of the Spanish Bank of the Island 
of Cuba, and one of the foremost 
financial figures in the Republic of 
of Cuba. 

The board of directors is composed 
of men prominent in money affairs In 
Cuba and abroad. First among the 
directors is Jos6 Marimon, president 
of the Spanish Bank of the Island of 
Cuba, whose presidency of the latter 
institution has not only servted to 
maintain the high reputation it al- 
ready enjoyed, but also to greatly in- 
crease its prestige. The other mem- 
bers of the board are: Miguel Her- 
nandez, Manuel Suarez Codov^s, Jos4 
Roig y Roig, George Behrens, Paul 




Meyer, Charles Littman, Francisco 
Bosques Reyes. 

Th'6 bank has the exclusive privi- 
lege of issuing mortgage scrip in 
Cuba during sixty years. 

The operations of the bank will 
consist of loaning money on first 
mortgage on city and rural property. 
On the former, money ■will be loaned 
up to 70 per cent of its value, and on 
rural property up to 50 per cent. The 
loans will be for periods as long as 
fifty years, one year, six months or 
for shorter terms. The payments can 
be made by installments or when the 
notes come due. Guaranteed credits 
will be acquired, although already 
mortgaged, provided the mortgage 
does not exceed 70 per cent on city 
and 50 per cent on rural property. 

Loans will be made to city govern- 
ments and official corporations of the 
state, provided these have been le- 
gally authorized to make loans. The 
payments of these loans may be made 
without mortgage, but must be amply 

Credits of the state, provinces, mu- 
nicipalities and corporations will be 
purchased whenever their obligations 
are properly guaranteed. 

The bank will issue credits of its 
own, up to the amount it has loaned. 
These may be in the form of scrip 
bonds or otherwise, payable at fixed 
periods or by means of drawings. 
They may bear coupons or premiums 
payable at their becoming due. The 
bank will negotiate these obligations, 
loaning money on them or opening 
accounts or In any other way compat- 
ible with good business methods. 

The proof of the good reception giv- 
en the Territorial Bank is evidenced 
by the fact that during the five 
months it has been running, up to 
August 1, its operations have been 
considerably more than two and one- 
half millions of dollars. United States 
currency, notwithstanding the scru- 
pulous care which the board of direct- 
ors has observed in passing upon all 
applications, and insisting that all of 
the rules and regulations be observed 
to the letter. Applications to the 
bank for mortgage loans have reached 

Notwithstanding the fact that the 
stock of this bank has been listed on 
the stock exchanges but a short time 
it is already quoted at a premium of 
60 per cent, a value in excess of all 
the other stocks quoted in this mar- 

ket. This quotation is not due to 
any abnormal condition in the local 
market, but is based on the quotations 
in the Paris exchange. 

Another proof of the excellent re- 
sults of this bank as a financial in- 
stitution is the constant offers it is 
receiving of enormous amounts of 
money from bankers in Paris and 
New York, to be let out in first mort- 
gages. This money is offered at a 
low rate of interest, so that borrow- 
ers can obtain very liberal terms. The 
Territorial Bank in this matter has 
been of immense benefit to the coun- 




A Havana Banking Institution With 
Sixty-Seven Years' Experience 
in Tliis Field. 

Havana Is a Paradise to the Lovers 
of Beautiful Hand-Made 

The woman tourist finds in Havana 
a veritable paradise if she, like most 
women, delights over beautiful hand- 
made embroideries. 

At Empedrado 11, within a half 
block of the Cathedral of Havana, 
there is to be found the best stock 
in Havana. It is kept by Mrs. Fer- 
nandez, who has had years of ex- 
perience with the tourist trade and 
therefore knows just the kind of ma- 
terial which the visitor seeks. 

Mrs. Fernandez has a splendid stock 
of hand embroidery at very reason- 
able prices. She receives her goods 
direct from Paris, the Canary Islands, 
Porto Rico and the Madeira Island. 

Dresses, shirtwaists, in fact every- 
thing in the way of women's, misses' 
or children's garments are always on 
hand. Every garment is the latest 
style and guaranteed to be pure linen 
and all hand worked. There is also 
a complete line' of table and lunch 
cloths and bed spreads. 

In no other place will goods be 
found so fresh and cheap. 

An assortment of antique jewelry 
is also kept to interest those who 
wish to make purchases of this kind. 
Tourists are cordially invited to -make 
a visit. It is not necessary to ask 
any one the way. A coach can be 
taken direct to the door or a San 
Juan de Dios street car will leave you 
within half a block. It is only two 
blocks from the Hotel Florida, eight 
from the Hotels Sevilla, Plaza and 

No banking institution on the isl- 
and of Cuba can point to a more 
world-wide claim of success than can 
the H. Upmann & Company bank 
which, on its 60th anniversary seven 
years ago in Havana, threw open the 
doors of its magnificent building at 
the corner of Amurgura and Merca- 
deres streets. 

Its business, established in Cuba in 
1844 by Henry Upmann, a citizen of 
the Kaiserland, his successors in the 
handling of the reins of the present 
vast institution have the greatest 
reason to be proud of their work laid 
out for them by the founder of the 
company's business in Havana. 

The name of H. Upmann & Com- 
pany, bankers vies in its success as 
financiers with that of the Rothschilds 
in England, for in addition to its 
home office in Hamburg it has its 
own offices for banking in New York 
and correspondents eager to get its 
business in every city in the world. 

It can be safely said that the rise 
of H. Upmann & Company is per- 
haps unparalleled, certainly ih Cuba, 
and it has withstood the gigantic swirl 
that has drawn the shade of oblivion 
over the small individual banks. 
Today perhaps stronger than ever, it 
is competing with monster banking 
houses and is as ever the object of 

The Havana bank of the company 
is under the direction of both Her- 
man Upmann and Henry Runken. In 
every respect the Havana bank is a 
model banking house, equipped with 
all of the sound facilities necessitat. 
ed by its voluminous business. It 
installed the first large safety deposit 
vault at a cost that caused competi- 
tors to marvel in amazement. The 
conservatism, together with the acute 
business sagacity displayed by the 
founder of this "Rock of Gibraltar" 
in the establishing of a cigar indus- 
try in Cuba, brought the firm the 
same degree of confidence from its 
clients when it engaged in active 
banking business. 

Its cigar factory, known through- 
out the world as a model institution, 
as well as a pioneer in the industry. 

lays its success to the keen purchase 
and production of tobacco. In off 
seasons the firm of H. Upmann & 
Company has seldom failed of suc- 
cess in the tobacco trade. Their ci- 
gars have been long in vogue and 
stand today of the same high grade 
quality that brought them favor 
three-score of years ago. 

H. Upmann & Company have al- 
ways merited the esteem and confi- 
dence of customers, not only in Cuba 
but throughout the business world of 
all nations where the name in finan- 
cial circles is synonym for integrity. 

Reaping and sowing are continu- 
ous in Cuba. 


A most delightful excursion on the 
Guines Division of the Havana Cen- 
tral is the one to Cotorro, situated 
about ten miles from Havana. Co- 
torro is the station for the very inter- 
esting and pretty little town of Santa 
Maria del Rosario, which is located 
one and a half miles distant, and 
which is reached from Cotorro by an 
omnibus over a very excellent high- 
way. Santa Maria del Rosaria is fa, 
mous for the medicinal sulphur 
springs located there. Eleven trains 
a day serve Cotorro in both directions, 
so that a charming morning or after- 
noon excursion may be made. 






Ships Sail From IHavana to New Yorl< 
and IVIexican Ports — Is Oldest 

The New York and Cuba Mail 
Steamship Company (Ward Line) has 
the distinction of being the oldest 
water line route operating a direct 
passenger and freight service between 
Cuba, the United States and Mex- 

In its inception the Ward Line be- 
gan its service with sailing ships, and 
to meet the ever increasing demand 
of an increasing trade, built up a 
splendid fleet of fasc and modern 
passenger and freight steel steam- 
ships, planned and equipped for the 
peculiar requirem'ents of the trade 
in which they operate. The present 
fleet comprises the following named 

S.S. *Havana 10,112 tons 

S.S. ^Saratoga ..10.112 tons 

S.S. *Mexico 9,685 tons 

S.S. *Morro Castle 9.500 tons 

S.S. *Esperanza 7,500 tons 

S.S. *Monterey 7.500 tons 

S.S. Vigilancia 6,400 tons 

S.S. Seguranca 6.400 tons 

S.S. Antilla 3.398 tons 

S.S. Camaguey 3,398 tons 

S.S. Santiago 3,286 tons 

S.S. Bayamo 3,206 tons 

S.S. Matanzas 3,094 ton^ 

S.S. Seneca 2,729 tons 

S.S. Cienfuegos 1,748 tons 

S.S. Manzanillo 1,811 tons 

S.S. Yumuri 1,811 tons 

S.S. Brunswick 2,265 tons 

*Twin screw. 

The Ward Line service is divideil 
into five separate routes, four of 
which connect with ports in Cuba, as 

1. New York-Havana Express Serv- 
ice: Steamers leave New York for 
Havana each Thursday and Saturday, 
reaching Havana on the following 
Monday and Wednesday; returning, 
leave Havana each Tuesday and 
Saturday, arriving at New York on 
Friday and Tuesday. 

2. New York-Havana-Vera Cruz, 
Mexico Service: Steamers leave New 
York on Thursdays, call Havana 
Monday. Progreso Wednesday, arrive 
Vera Cruz Friday; leave Vera Cruz on 
Thursday, call Progreso Saturday, 

leave Havana on Tuesday and reach 
New York on Friday. 

3. New York-Santiago - Cienfuegos 
Route (freight only) : Steamers leave 
New York every Wednesday, calling 
at Santiago the following Wednes- 
day, Cienfuegos Saturday. North- 
bound itinerary regulated according 
to cargo. 

4. New York-Guantanamo - Manza- 
nillo Route (freight only) : Steamers 
leave New York every alternate 
Wednesday, call at Guantanamo the 
following Tuesday, Manzanillo the 
second followin.g Tuesday. North- 
bound itinerary regulated according 
to cargo. 

5. N e w Y o r k-N a s s a u-Tampico 
Route: Steamers leave New York ev- 
ery alternate Friday, arriving Nassau 
the following Tuesday, Tampico the 
following Friday; returning, leave 
Tampico every alternate Friday, ar- 
rive Nassau Tuesdays, leave Nassau 
Thursday, reach New York Sunday. 
Freight steamers sail alternpte Fri- 
days for Tampico direct. 

Many of these routes may he com- 
bined in one tour, affording a most at- 
tractive and interesting trip. 

The extensive service of the V/ard 
Line and its traffic regulations with 
the railways at all ports of call in 
Cuba, Mexico and New York, also 
transatlantic steamship lines, operat- 
ing from the latter port to Europe 
and ports on the Mediterranean and 
South America, place it in posit cii 
to arrange for the direct booking i £ 
passengers and speedy transportauo.n 
of freight to all parts of the world. 

The exhibit of minerals at Cuba's 
recent National Exposition, was as- 
suredly enlightening, particularly that 
especially prepared for Pinar del Rio, 
a province not generally known for 
its mineral resources. Yet here were 
shown iron ores from the region 
around Mantua, where, according to a 
placard, a million tons of the same, 
averaging 50 per cent metallic iron, 
are in sight, and extra fine sand suit- 
able for cement, polished blocks of 
black and white marble, asphalt and 
mineral tar, copper from the Vinales 
district and some coal. — Bulletin Pan- 
American Union, Washington, D. C. 

Havana's death rate is among the 
smallest in the world. 


Established in 1906 — Has Proven Suc- 
cess of Unique System in Cuba. 
Local Board of Directors. 

The Bank of Havana, organized in 
1906, has proved the success of a 
unique system in Cuba — that of hav- 
ing its affairs conducted by a local 
board of directors with the assistance 
and counsel of an American commit- 
tee. This method has been success- 
fully used in other Spanish-American 
countries, but so far the Bank of Ha- 
vana is the only banking institution 
in Cuba doing business on a large 
scale which has adopted the system 
of having its affairs placed in the 
hands of a local board. 

One tribute which stands out to the 
credit of this model institution is its 
missionary work to stimulate among 
the Cubans the practice of depositing 
their funds by using its savings de- 
partment. The work of education 
which this particular bank has done 
to lead the Cubans to do away with 
their time -honored custom of hoard- 
ing their silver and gold in home 
strong boxes has been, indeed, a 
bright feature of the success of this 

The bank restricts its operations to 
the usual business methods in vogue 
among American banks and its equip- 
ment tor handling of all general bank 
business enables its many depositors 
to reap a benefit which is being more 
and more appreciated by a steadily 
increasing list of clients. It has en- 
couraged as much, if not niore than 
any other Cuban bank, thrift among 
the wage-earner who in his desire to 
accumulate has seen the benefits of 
depositing his savings. The conser- 
vatism as well as the sound judgment 
of the board of directors has permit- 
ted this bank to quickly assume a 
prominent place among Cuba's lead- 
ing institutions. 

Situated within the "Wall Street 
zone" of Havana's financial center, 
the Bank of Havana, at the corner 
of Cuba and Obrapia streets, affords 
a ready refuge for the commercial 
traveler as well as to the savings 
depositor. Its success of the last four 
years is surely enough to predict that 
its growth will be as rapid and 
healthy as it has shown itself capable 

of by its past endeavor in Cuba's 
busy capital. 

Board of Directors. 

President, Carlos de Zaldo; Vice 
President, Jose I. de la Camara; Sec- 
reary, Carlos I. Parraga. 

Directors: Sabas E. de Alvare; 
Jose Garcia Tunon, Leandro Valdes, 
Federico de Zaldo. 

Sub-Managers: James C. Martine, 
John S. Druland. 

Accountant: Juan Palet. 
— 1 

Cuba is the vacation spot of Amer- 

The trade wind is always with 


The fortification known as Principe 
Castle, crowning Principe Hill at the 
end of Carlos III boulevard (reached 
by Principe street cars from Central 
Park), was built by Silvestro Albarca; 
work was begun In 1774 and conclud. 
ed in 1779. The hill had been forti- 
fied with temporary works in 1771. 
It is now used as the national pent, 
tentiary. On the left, as the sight- 
seer stands overlooking Havana, is 
the Pirotecnia Militar, now the Uni- 
versity and between the fortress and 
the college are the manay separate 
buildings which, taken together, make 
up Military Hospital No. 1. 







The Bank of Nova Scotia has been 
doing business in Havana for nearly 
six years and its record is an enviable 
one. The history of this Institution 
dates bacli to 1832 and Its acts have 
always been symbolic of thrift and 
strong Integrity. Since its entrance 
into the Cuban field it has continued 
to show the same soundness of in- 
stitution that its originators planned 
for its destiny and it has easily gain- 
ed a leading place in the direction of 
its work here, its newest field. The 
Havana Branch together with its sev- 
eral branches throughout the island, 
form a monetary interest which con- 
tribute very materially to the com- 
mercial advancement of Cuba as a 
whole. The bank, as the Cuban busi- 
ness world has come to know it, 
stands as one of the potent financial 
bulwarks of the Island. 

The incorporators of the Bank of 
Nova Scotia back in 1832, probably 
never dreamed that the institution 
which they had founded away up 
there in the Noi-th would some day 
find itself being reckoned with as a 
powerful factor in the financial 
growth of the "Land of Perpetual 
Summer," In the West Indies. And 
so it is because of the great influx of 
British wealth to Cuba that the op- 
portunity of the bank has become one 
of Cuba's necessities From its first 
invasion of Havana the bank quickly 
supplied a demand that later com- 
pelled it to establish its branches in 
other parts of the island. 

The stock of this institution sells 
for the highest figure of any Canadian 
chartered bank, and no Canadian bank 
pays a higher dividend than does this 
one. The institution has in all over 
one hundred branches, with a busi- 
ness that extends from the East 
Coast to the Pacific and from the 
"Land of the Midnight Sun" to the 
Carribhean sea. The laws of Canada 
under which the bank is chartered, 
provide the most efficient safeguards 
for depositors. 

The capitalization of the bank is 
at present $3,369,800, an increase of 
?369,800 since last year. 

The reserve fund is $6,271,264, an 
increase In the last twelve months of 

Its last annual dividend was thir- 
teen per cent, an increase of one per 
cent over the previous one, and this 
clearly attests the business acumen 
of the worthy officials and empha- 
sizes also the assurance of the bank 
reaching an even greater stronghold 
in the Cuban field. The Cuban ad- 
juncts to the Bank of Nova Scotia 
far exceed in volume many independ- 
ent banks. 

The Havana Branch occupies its 
own handsome structure at the cor- 
ner of O'Reilly and Cuba streets in 
the center of the banking institutions. 
The head office of the bank is at 
Halifax, while the general manager in 
charge of its numerous branch's is 
located at Toronto. It has correspon- 
dents in nearly every large American 
city and is represented by sterling 
banks in England, France and Ger- 

No better example of the bank's re- 
liability can be pointed to than the 
fact that frequent depositing of Do- 
minion of Canada. Jamaican and Por- 
to Rican government funds are made 
with the bank without the require- 
ment of any guarantee. The bank has 
one of its largest branches in the isl- 
and of Jamaica. 

The bank's officials in charge of 
the Havana Branch are: F. W. Ross, 
manager; P. S. Melvin, accountant; 
W. F. Mallory, assistant accountant. 


Is a Great Magnet for All American 
Visitors Because of Interesting 

The city of Santiago is always a 
great magnet for all Americans vis- 
itors on account of the interesting 
battlefields in its vicinity and the 
high, rugged mountains and wild 
tropical scenery that surround it. San- 
tiago is one of the most charming 
cities in Cuba, built on many hills, 
with asphalted and well-kept streets, 
now possessing also an up to date 
street railway system, an excellent 
water supply, and good hotel accom- 
modations. There is also a glamour 
overspreading Santiago that is pecu- 
liar to itself, and it is so fascinatingly 
quaint and picturesque in its every 
aspect that it has gained for itself 
the title of "The Dream City of the 


A Queer Carriage Formerly Used in 
Cuba in the Days of Bad Roads. 
Is Seldom Seen Now. 

A vehicle formerly much used in 
Cuba, but now largely a thing of the 
past, because of the modern highways 
traversing the island in every direc- 
tion, is the volante. The vehicle can 
occasionally be seen in Matanzas and 
if one insists on it can be had to make 
the trip to the Bella.mar Caves. The 
sensation of riding in this queer affair 
is worth experiencing. 

The volante is a two-wheeled ve- 
hicle, having wheels six to seven feet 
in diameter, set wide apart, and the 
body hung so low that the head of the 
passenger is below the upper rim of 
the wheels. The shafts are extremely 
long. Some volantes have three 
horses or mules, one in the shafts 
and two attached by traces one on 
either side. The driver rides on the 
left side, guiding the middle horse 
with a strap and with his whip keeps 
the off horse to its work. The ve- 
hicle is admirably adapted to the 
rough riding going across country, 
over obstacles impassable by ordinary 
vehicles and following safely wher- 
ever a horse can go — down sheer de- 
clines, through streams, over rocks, 
through mud to the hubs, riding 
down saplings, and making its way in 
safety where any other conveyance 
would be impracticable. The volante 
is of great antiquity and is still used 
in Spain; it was formerly the town 
vehicle of Cuba. 



The prices of land vary according 
to size of tract and location. Large 
tracts of good land can be bought in 
lots of 20,000 acres for four dollars 
the acre. If the land is in the inter- 
ior away from railroad transportation 
they are cheaper than when located 
on the shoreline near navigable bays. 

Tracts of 1,000 acres can be pur- 
chased for from six to ten dollars the 

Smaller tracts will range In price 
from forty to several hundred dollars 
the acre. Some American colonies 
make a specialty of selling ten to 
twenty acre tracts for thirty dollars 


A Curious Sight to the Tourist In 
Havana Is the Street Lace 

This individual carries a large box 
by means of a strap over his back, 
and is laden down with lace of every 
description from costly Valenciennes 
to the cheap€St. He walks up and 
down the streets of the city and 
shows his wares through the iron 
windows to the people. He does a 
good business, because he sells al- 
most as cheaply and oftentimes more 
i:0, than do the large stores. He buys 
his goods at the wholesale and as his 

store is on his back he has no costly 
rent to pay and can afford to under- 
bid even department stores with their 
rock bottom prices. The vendor also 
saves many a trip to the Cuban house - 
wife who does not, as a rule, care to 
leave her home except on feast days 
and special occasions. The vendor 
walks up and down the streets cry- 
ing out his wares. His cry is well 
known and when it is heard he is 
called by a simple "P-s-s-st." There 
is much good natured haggling over 
the prices, but both seller and cus- 
tomer are generally satisfied at the 
bargain driving. 

Cuba welcomes the home builder. 






Has Twenty-Three Branch Banks in 
West Indies — Has Assets of $102,- 
000,000 — Reserve, $7,000,000. 

Canadian banlcs have long enjoyed 
a world-wide confidence and when the 
Royal Bank of Canada Invaded the 
business world of Havana it found a 
welcome. Because of its immense re- 
sources and excellent connections, 
which include twenty-three branch 
banks in the West Indies, business 
men here with outside interests at 
once loaned the bank neat patron- 

November 1, 1909, the bank took 
over the Union Bank of Halifax, which 
gives the combined assets of the in- 
stitution some ?102,000,000, Its capital 
being $6,200,000 and its reserve fund 

The admirable check which the Ca- 
nadian banking laws keep on all char- 
tered banks in that Dominion, acts 
as a wonderful stimulus to the care- 
ful and shrewd business man in the 
selection of this bank for much of his 
financial interest both local and 

The Royal Bank is famed for the 
security it offers its patrons as well 
as for its conservative management 
in the handling of millions of dollars. 
The outgrowth of the Merchants aanK 
of Halifax, the Royal Bank of Canada 
was incorporated in 1869. Today U 
has 118 branches in Canada and flltern 
branches right here in Cuba. Its main 
bank building in Havana is at 33 Obra- 
pia street, where It was erected some 
years ago. It is a sumptuous bank 
home exquisitely fitted for its impor- 
tant work. It maintains a branch bank 
at 92 Galiano, Havana, for the particu- 
lar accommodation of its depositors in 
that section. 

Its other Cuban branches are in 
Cardenas, Cienfuegos, ManzanUlo, Ma- 
tanzas, Camaguey, Antilla, Sagua, 
Santiago, Caibarien, Bayamo, Guanta- 
namo, Puerto Padre and Sancti 
Spirltus. It has branches In San 
Juan, Ponce and Mayaguey, Porto 

It has recently added a branch bank 
in Kingston, Jamaica, and has large 
branches at Port of Spain and San 
Fernando, Trinidad, and at Nassau. 

Its New York branch building at 68 
William street has just been enlarged 
to accommodate its increasing busi- 
ness. A branch has also been estab- 
lished at Bridgetown, Barbadoes. 

September 1, 1909, the bank opened 
an office in London in the structure 
of the Bank of England, which gives 
excellent facilities for general bank- 
ing business in that city. 

These increased facilities, of course, 
place the bank in a position to be of 
the greatest service to its hundreds 
of patrons, handling letters of credit 
and in fact in the execution of all 
bank business. 

The Royal Bank maintains an elab- 
orate home for its employes in Ve- 
dado, the beautiful suburb of Havana, 
where all the luxuries of home, even 
to a splendid tennis court, are in serv- 
ice. The employes' home stands as a 
pleasing monument to the bank in its 
care for its staff of bank assistants. 

The directors of the hank are H. 
S. Holt, president; E. L. Pease, vice 
president; Wiley Smith, Hon. David 
Mackeen, James Redmond, P. W. 
Thompson, G. R. Crowe, D. K. Elliott, 
W. H. Thorne, Hugh Paton, T. J. 
Drummond, Wm. Robertson. The of- 
ficers are Edson L. Pease, general 
manager; W. B. Torrance, superin- 
tendent of branches; C. E. Neil and 
P. J. Sherman, assistant general man- 
agers; C. A. Crosbie, supervisor of 
branches in British Columbia; P. J. 
Sherman, supervisor of Cuban 
branches; T. R. Whitley, supervisor 
of central western branches; E. L. 
Thorne, supervisor of maritime prov- 
ince branches, and C. E. Mackenzie, 
R. B. Caldwell, P. Y. Checkley, A. D. 
McRae and W. C. Harvey, inspectors. 


Prom Guanabacoa automobiles 
make a flying journey over a shaded 
road through fair, green country to 
Cojimar, a seaside resort. All Ha- 
vana goes thither on Sundays. There 
is music; refreshments are available; 
there is sea bathing for those who 
desire it. There is a small fort call- 
ed "Little Morro" to be investigat- 
ed. Full information as to roiites and 
rates may be had at Prado No. 118. 

Cuba's motoring laws are the de- 
light of motormen. 


Established Twelve Years Ago, Is 
Now Largest Electrical Concern 
on Island of Cuba. 

The largest electrical supply and 
contracting firm on the island is that 
of Charles H. Thrall & Co. It has 
only been established during the last 
twelve years. The house was found- 
ed by Charles H. Thrall and is in- 
stalled in handsome quarters in the 
Hotel Plaza building, at the corner 
of Monserrate and Neptuno streets. 

This house is the agent for th'i 
Westinghouse Electrical & Manufac- 
turing Company of Pittsburg, which, 
with its allied concerns is the largest 
manufacturer of electrical supplies in 
the world. They have factories in 
England, France, Russia and Aus- 

Charles H. Thrall & Co. are also 
agents for the Phillips Wire Co., of 
Pawtucket, R. I., manufacturers of the 
well known O. K. wire, which has 
been after years of experiment made 
especially suitable for use in tropica] 

Some of the most important en- 
gineering works of the island have 
been installed by this house. One 
of the latest contracts it has obtained 
is that of installing two mixed-pres 
sure turbo -generators for the Havana 
Electric Railroad. These are the first 
steam units of this type ever installe.l 
on the island. 

Nearly all of the large buildings in 
Havana have been wired by the firm 
of Charles H. Thrall & Co. Among 
these may be mentioned the hand- 
home produce exchange building, 
known as La Lonja, the Hotel Plaza, 
the new Hotel Telegrafo, and the 
Hotel Inglaterra. Among the impor- 
tant contracts now in hand are the 
million-dollar Gallego club and the 
ninety-room private residence of the 
SarrS, family. 


A large variety of delicious fruit 
drinks add no little part to pleasure 
in living in Cuba. 


Founded in 1794 by Governor las 
Casas, Whose Rule Was Bright 
Spot in Cuban History. 

At Belascoain and San Lazaro is 
the Casa de Beneficiencia y Materni. 
dad, Charity and Maternity Asylum, 
for the aged poor and for destitute 
children. It was founded in 1794 by 
Governor General Luis de las Casas, 
whose administration was one of the 
bright spots in the history of Cuba. 
The asylum is managed by the Sis- 
ters of Charity, and is one of the 
most beneficent institutions of the 
city. As an illustration of how things 

were done in the old days, it may be 
recalled that at one time when the 
Beneticencia was in danger of falling 
into decay for want of funds, the 
Junta de Tabacos, the concern which 
farmed the Spanish royal monopoly 
of cigar manufacture, purchased 100 
slaves for the express purpose of de- 
voting the profit of this labor as cigar- 
makers to the support of the institu- 


Cuba's macadam roads are the best 
in the world for automobiles and ex- 
tend for hundreds of miles. 

Crops rotate in Cuba — there is no 

The Havana Post covers Cuba like 
a blanket — and it is not a wet one. 


The trade wind always blows. 







Fine, Up-to-date Structure Now 
Being Built on the Arsenal 

The new passenger terminal in 
Havana, Cuba, which is in the course 
of erection for the Havana Terminal 
Railroad Company, will be one of the 
finest and most up-to-date structures 
in the republic of Cuba. It is situated 
on what is known as the arsenal site, 
near the harbor, and will be built in 
connection with wharves, warehouses 
and all the other necessary terminal 
improvements, at a total fost of ?4,- 

The building will be used by the 
United Railways of Havana, the Ha- 
vana Central and the Marianao Rail- 
road, thus serving as the Union Pas- 
senger Terminal for the city of Ha- 
vana. As tourists' traveling is be. 
coming more important every year, 
the station has been designed to take 
care of this ever-increasing need, 
and is of a capacity and of dimensions 
which will suffice to satisfy all re- 
quirement for many years to come. 

The station building itself is 240 
feet in length by 70 feet deep, and 
will be a three-story and attic struc- 
ture. The main waiting room is 72 
feet by 128 feet, and extends all the 
way up to the roof, having a clear 
height of some 60 feet. It will be fur- 
nished in Italian marble with mosaic 
floor, and will have adjoining it the 
usual retiring rooms for men and for 

The cafg is 40 feet by 52 feet and is 
situated on the most attractive corner 
of the building. This caf6 will have 
a high wainscot of elaborate Spanish 
tiles and a marble refreshment bar. 
The Caf 6 Is entirely open with the | 
street on two sides, with a sufficent 
sidewalk to allow the placing of caf6 
tables there, as is done in the Con- 
tinental Caf 6 . 

A large baggage room, with the 
usual mail and parcel rooms, occu- 
pies the other end of the building. 

In addition to the large waiting 
room there is a concourse, 50 feet by 
200 feet, provided with seats to take 
care of a large part of the traffic. 

On the second and third floors will 
1)6 found the offices of the United 

Railways of Havana and of the Ha- 
vana Central Railroad. These offices 
will surround the main waiting room 
and comprise the usual offices of a 
railroad corporation. These floors 
are served by two electric elevators 
in one of the towers ot the building 
and a freight lift In the rear. 

The exterior of the building Is in 
the style of Spanish renaissance and 
will be built of American terra-cotta. 
A great deal of color will be introduced 

Spanish tile found in great abundance 
in Cuban buildings. 

There will be no glass in the win- 
dows of the building, with the excep- 
tion of a small panel in the shutters 
and panels in the toilet room win- 
dows, but double sets of shutters have 
been provided for all the windows; 
the exterior set with fixed louvres, to 
be closed in the case of an ordinary 

ing engineers, of New York City, who 
have had much experience in this class 
of work, having built the Hoboken 
terminal of the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna and Western Railroad Com- 
pany, me Staten Island ferry-house, 
and the Whitehall Street ferry termi- 
nal in New York City. 

The building has been designed by 
Kenneth M. Murchison, of New York 

rainstorm, and an interior set with , City, who has built the Hoboken term- 
reinforcing bars and extra heavy bolts, inal and the Scranton station for the 


being an extremely ornate addition to 
the city's architecture, will provide 
all the latest facilities for handling 
passenger traffic, the vexatious con- 
ditions surrounding the present term- 
inals will vanish completely, resulting, 
in addition to quick and easy board- 
ing of trains by passengers, a con- 
siderable saving in the schedule of 
through trains to Matanzas, Carde- 
nas, Santa Clara, Camaguey and San. 
tiago de Cuba, as the tortuous loop 
around the southern outskirts of the 
city and the running of the trains at 
reduced speed on street level will 
be done away with. Matanzas, for 
example, will be reached well within 
a two-hour schedule. The time of 
th* electric trains of the Havana Cen- 
tral Railroad will also be much im- 
proved, as all the passenger trains 
will enter the station over an elevated 
structure, thus eliminating the street 
level along the Tallopiedra docks, 
where constant interruptions are now 
caused by carts and other vehicles 
loading and unloading at the wharves. 

Altogether, the new station is one 
of the most marked instances of the 
progress and prosperity of Havana 
and will result in facilities and com- 
fort to travelers heretofore unknown 
in Havana. 


Are Industrious Members of Com- 
munity — Market Gardening Is 
in Their Hands. 

throughout the building to conform to } to be used if the storm becomes vio- Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western, 
the tropical climate and the wealth 'lent. The light penetrates so far into and he is now engaged in constructing 

of color which one finds in Cuba. A 
distinctive feature of the front eleva- 
tion is the twin towers arising to a 
height of 130 feet above grade. These 
towers will contain water-tanks of 
20,000 gallons capacity, to be used for 
fire and storage purposes. The tow. 
ers will also form an excellent point 
of observation for visitors to Havana. 
The roof will be covered with red 

the buildings in Cuba that even with 
the shutters closed the rooms are as 
bright as in an ordinary American 
building with everything open. 

The construction work of the build- 
ing, the wharves, the terminal, the 
yards and the elevated railroad, upon 
which all trains will be brought to the 
station, is being carried out by the 
Snare & friest Company, construct. 

the Baltimore Union Station and the 
Newark station for the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company. 

The work of construction, which 
was begun early in 1911, has prog, 
ressed with remarkable rapidity and 
it is confidently expected that the new 
structure will be completed and ready 
for service early next summer. 

This new Union Station, besides 

John Chinaman is ubiquitous in 
Havana. The census of 1899 shows 
a Chinese population of 2,751, and 
here, as elsewhere, they are indus- 
trious members of the community. 
Chinamen are seen carrying burdens 
swung from balanced shoulder poles, 
after the manner of their native coun. 
try. On the outskirts of the city, and 
in the suburbs, are extensive Chinese 
truck farms; the market garden in- 
dustry is largely in their hands. 

The Chinese quarter is in Zanja 
and Aguila streets. The Chinese 
theatre is on Zanja street. The 
Chinese in Cuba are reminders of the 
coolie trade which brought here hund- 
reds of thousands to virtual slavery. 
They were imported under a contract 
to serve eight years at H a month, 
and the planters paid $400 for them. 





Situated Opposite Central Park, IHas 
Lately Been Renovated at Cost 
of $300,000. 

The Hotel Inglaterra is Havana's 
oldest and one of the most frequent- 
ed hostelries of Havana. It is sit- 
uated on the fashionable Prado and 
faces Central Park. It is therefore In 
the heart of the city and one of the 
most convenient places possible for 
the tourist to select. 

The hotel, while the oldest in Ha- 
vana, has this last season been thor- 
oughly renovated so that it has been 
converted Into a modern hotel in 
every sense of the word. Over three 
hundred thousand dollars was spent 
in this work, the proprietors having 
spared neither pains nor money to 
make their place the best equipped 
and most fashionable place frequented 
by visitors to Havana. 

Beautiful marble and tiled baths are 
to be found in every room. There is 
also a system of call bells and tele- 
phones and other conveniences for 
the comfort of the guest. English- 
speaking bell boys and porters are 
also at every beck and call. 

The interior of the hotel is a great 
success. It has a high wainscoting 
of imported Spanish tiles made in An- 
dalucia. These beautiful tiles can on - 
ly be seen to be appreciated for they 
are of the most exquisite colors and 
most handsomely finished. 

A well equipped restaurant is run 
in connection with the hotel and 
meals are served a la carte. The 
cuisine is not to be excelled here 
or anywhere else, the chefs being ex- 
pert Frenchmen and Spaniards. 
Their dishes are a delight to epicures. 

The picturesque palm garden and 
tea room at the rear of the restau- 
rant is a restful spot for ladies and 
gentlemen, tired out from their walks 
or drives about the city. Whether one 
is a guest of the hotel or not he 
should not miss calling at the tea gar- 
den and partaking of some cool re- 
freshment. English-speaking waiters 
ani^ servants are on every hand to see 
that the visitor gets what he wants. 

The Inglaterra is the best situated 
hotel in the city. It is on the corner 
of San Rafael street where many 
American stores are located and 
where the visitor can obtain any of 

the little necessities he may have for- 
gotten to bring with him. On this 
street he can also find anything in 
the world he may want in the way of 
souvenirs to take back home as re- 
minders of the visit to this beautiful 
island. On no other street can Pana- 
ma hats be bought so cheaply. 

During the carnival times in the 
month of February, all of the parades 
pass in front of the hotel and from Its 
doors and balconies the guests can 

Street cars to every part of the 
city pass within a block, being as 
convenient as they could possibly be 
and still far enough away to prevent 
the guest from being disturbed by 
their noise. 

In front of the hobel, within calling 
distance, there is always a carriaga 
and a taxi stand, so that the guest 
can have either by simply raising bis 
hand or telling one of the hotel em- 
ployes his wishes. 

natural wonders of the world, several 
hundred springs boiling up all In one 
and supplying this city with the clear 
crystal water that must appeal to 
every one who tastes it. Automobiles 
also take the visitor to the Cuban 
agricultural experimental station, and 
other places equally as interesting. 
The Cuban roads are excellent for au- 
tomobilists and those who bring their 
machines with them are certain to 
never regret having done . so. 


join in the fun of throwing confetti 
and serpentinas at the dark-eyed 
maidens who attract their fancy as 
they gaily pass in their gay carriages 
and automobiles. 

Havana's largest opera house. The 
National, said now to be the fifth 
largest auditorium of the kind in the 
world, is just across the street from 
this hotel, while the other principal 
theaters of the city are within a 
stone's throw. 

Special trips and excursions are ar> 
ranged by the hotel to every part oi 
the city and surrounding country. 
One can take his choice of many or 
he can, if he stays long enough, take 
in them all. There are trips to orange 
groves, pineapple plantations, sugar 
mills, tobacco fields where the tobac- 
co is grown entirely under cloth, and 
others to places of industrial inter- 
est. Automobile trips are planned to 
the famous Vento Springs, one of the 

No more interesting sight is to be 
seen by the visitor in Havana than 
the restaurant and cafe of the Hotel 
Inglaterra on theater nights after the 
performance. To these places the 
elite of Havana flock in large num- 
bers to take their coffees, creams and 
ices. Here is to be seen the wealth 
and beauty of the young republic, 
with all Its dazzling display of rich 
and handsome clothes and priceless 
jewels. It is said that no better 

dressed women are to be seen outside 
of Paris than in Havana, and the vis- 
itor who visits the Hotel Inglaterra 
restaurant after the opera will be 
convinced that the statement is true. 

The office of the Inglaterra is in 
charge of competent American and 
Cuban clerks who, owing to their 
many years of experience in handling 
the tourist trade in Havana, are able 
to give complete information on all 
subjects and assist the traveler to 
make his sojourn pleasant. 


Has Been the Rule Throughout the 
Ages — Beautiful Assortment Is 
Available to Havana Visitor. 

In the remotest times of antiquity 
there was a great passion for jewelry 
and this passion has been transmitted 
down through all the ages, as a re- 
flection of civilization. The Romans 
especially distinguished themselves 
for their passion for ornaments of 
gold and precious stones which later 
the Renaissance perfected and adapt- 
ed to modern requirements and the 
demands of the reigning style. 

Formerly jewels were the patri- 
mony of rich families only, but as the 
economic conditions of the people 
change there is a much greater num- 
ber of persons who enjoy comforts, 
and in these there was aroused as a 
natural consequence, the desire for 
contentment and luxury. To this is 
due the great number of capricious 
forms of jewels which the artist pro- 
duces and transforms and placea 
within the reach of all fortunes, 
thanks to the aid given by the richest 
jewelers of the globe, who by their 
intelligence and honor win name and 
fame. Among these there occupies 
a prefered place, the house of Cuervo 
& Sobrinos of Ricla Street No. 39%, 
Havana, so well known and so popu- 
lar, that to describe the praises of 
their numerous customers they have 
adopted the appropriate motto: 

"Our Fame Flies All Over th« 

This motto is justified and is pro- 
claimed by the great variety and pro- 
fusion of its precious stones which 
can, however, give but a small idea 
of the beautiful designs which the 
house will place at the contemplation , 
of the reader. 





Is Equipped With All Modern Con- 
veniences and the Traveler Is 
Certain of Being Comfortable. 

No traveler who once goes to Se- 
villa Hotel will ever care to patronize 
any other hotel in the city because 
the comforts and attention he receives 
there will assure him that no better 
is to be obtained anywhere. New- 
comers to Havana often express their 
surprise that there should be in a 
city the size of Havana a hotel so 
thoroughly up to date in every way 
in its management and so comfortably 

Unlike most hotels in Havana, the 
Sevilla was built expressly for a hotel. 
No other object was intended for it 
and in drawing the plans advantages 
are given to it that are lacking in oth- 
ers. In the first place it was built 
for two of the pioneer hotel men of 
Havana, two men who have been in 
the business here for many years and 
know just what is required by the 
traveling public. These men are the 
proprietors, Urbano Gonzalez, for 
twenty years owning and managinc 
the Grand Pasaje Hotel, and Manuel 
Lopez for nearly as many years own- 
ing and managing the Grand Hotel 
Inglaterra. These two gentlemen 
when they came to build the Sevilla 
put together their knowledge in all 
their years of hotel experience in Ha- 
vana and the result was the Sevilla 
Hotel, a structure which will long be 
without a rival. 

There is no modern improvement 
for hotels that will not be found in 
the Sevilla. Hot and cold water baths 
are in every apartment, electric lights, 
call bells and telephones are connect- 
ed with every room for the conven- 
ience of guests. 

The construction is along lines best 
suited for a tropical climate. Where 
it occupies but three stories, an Amer- 
ican hotel would have made six out 
of the same space, to the manifest 
betterment of its own pocketbook, 
perhaps, but to the inconvenience of 
the guest. The ceilings of the Sevilla 
are lofty, giving a free circulation 
for every particle of air available. 
The floors are equipped with cool tile 
and everywhere there are open courts 
and balconies. The arrangements are 

The furnishings of the Sevilla are 
just what a hotel in a country such 
as Cuba should have. The manage- 
ment believes that there is a happy 
medium between the special require- 
ments of the North and South, and 
this they have tried to obtain in fur- 
nishing this great hotel. Massive 
mahogany furniture here find admir- 
able setting in the spacious rooms, 
where the absence of heavy carpets 
and draperies gives one an impres- 

The palms include many plants of 
rare value and great beauty. 

The dining room of the Sevilla can 
not but attract the favorable comment 
of any one who sees it. Contrary to 
the usual custom of Havana of having 
the dining room on a level with the 
street, that of this hotel is elevated 
to such a heighth as to give one an 
angreeable sense of privacy, but at 
the same time does not obstruct the 
view of the diner. 

and call of the guests of this hotel. 
They meet all incoming steamers and 
trains and will give any one announc- 
ing himself as a guest of the Sevilla 
all possible assistance with baggage 
and transportation. If the traveler is 
just arriving by steamer, the inter- 
preter of the hotel will take complete 
charge of his baggsge, if he so wishes, 
and will pilot him through the exami- 
nation of the custom house inspectors 
with the greatest despatch and the 


sion of airy coolness. On the open 
galleries are to be found comfortable 
lounging chairs and convenient tables 
inviting one either to repose or re- 

The Palm Garden of the Sevilla is 
something that should never be miss- 
ed by the tourist even though he does 
not stop at this hotel. It is a special 
feature. A dinner among these palms 
in all their tropical beauty will always 
appeal to the lovers of the beautiful. 

The cuisine of the Sevilla can not 
be described in words. It must be 
sufficient to say that it is of the very 
highest possible standard. The very 
best chefs obtainable are at the head 
of this important department. Meals 
are served a la carte and the menu 
includes the choicest that America 
and Cuba can produce while the wine 
list is the best that France and Spain 
can supply. 

Polite interpreters are at the beck 

very least of personal inconvenience. 

Visitors who are intending to make 
their headquarters at the Sevilla 
while they are in Havana should al- 
ways communicate their arrival with 
the management in advance so that 
proper reservations can he assured 
and a special representative sent to 
the steamer to await his arrival and 
facilitate in every way the despatch 
of his baggage through the custom 

Too much can not be said about the 
location of the Sevilla Hotel. It la 
situated just one block from the fash 
ionable promenade, The Prado where 
the visitor is always assured of en- 
tertainment and comfort. The Prado 
on late afternoons and evening is al- 
ways a gay scene, as it is used as a 
promenade by richly dressed people, 
walking to and fro between Central 
Park and the Malecon. Under the 
shade of the beautiful laurel trees o( 
the Prado are benches placed for the 
convenience of any one who wishes 
to use them and they are very con- 
venient to the one who is entertain- 
ed by looking on this interesting 
phase of life in the Cuban capital. 

Just two blocks from the Sevilla 
Hotel is Central Park, one of the 
prettiest parks of its kind in the 
world. Here the guest on several 
evenings during the week is welcome 
to a chair and hear for two hours a 
very high grade of band music. Two 
bands alternate in giving concerts. 
One is the Havana City Band, which 
went to Buffalo during the Pan- 
American Exposition and took second 
honors in competing against the many 
bands there congregated. The band 
of Phillip Sousa on that occasion took 
first prize. The leader of this Havana 
band, because of the success of him- 
self and men, was presented a sword 
by the late Marcus A. Hanna, In the 
name of the citizens of Buffalo. On 
the sword, which is beautifully en- 
graved, referring to the competition 
with the other bands, is inscribed the 
words: "You have cut them all to 
pieces." The other band which will 
play for the entertainment of the Se- 
villa Hotel is known as the Artillery 
Band. It is an organization belong- 
ing to the Cuban army, but every 
member is a trained musician, while 
its leader is a composer of great ac- 
complishments. Thus, within two 
blocks the hotel guest has all the ad- 
vantages and none of the disadvant- 
ages of enjoying these musical treats. 

Within a six-block walk from the 
Sevilla Hotel the guest, if he wishes 
to join the ranks of the gay promena- 
ders will find himself on Havana's 
famous Malecon, started by the Amer- 
icans under the first intervention and 
completed by the Cubans. Late in the 
afternoons the guest can obtain from 
his point of vantage an unobstructed 
view of Cuba's wonderful sunset. 





How Visitors to Havana Can Always 
Find Their Way by IVIemoriz- 
Ing Two Words. 

Havana in one respect does not dif- 
fer from otlier large cosmopolitan 
cities. Her hotels are centrally lo- 
cated and are all equipped with mod- 
ern conveniences, including uptodate 
plumbing, hot and cold water baths, 
and are all absolutely fireproof. In 
all other respects the city is the most 
unique spot in the western hemi- 
sphere. Her location between the 
picturesque hills and the beautiful 
blue waters of the Gulf of Mexico, 
her excellent climate, both winter and 
summer, the loyalty of the bright and 
vivacious Hahanos to their native 
city, her distinctly foreign aspect, all 
make up an ensemble as highly en- 
tertaining as the large, dark eyes so 
frequently met along her promenades 
and drives — the Cuban girl is a very 
pretty girl. 

The visitor to Havana with some 
central point fixed in his mind can go 
to and from all parts of the city with- 
out difficulty or molestation, the peo- 
ple being courteous and willing to di- 

Central Park, east, is the center of 
the city, and from here one can easily 
walk to all places of amusement and 
find transportation to all parts of the 
city and its suburbs. 

These are some of the street car 
lines of the Havana Electric system 
passing the comer of Central Park, 
east, a five cent fare only being 
charged for a ride of several miles: 

Jesus del Monte, will take you to 
the suburb of that name, passing by, 
on the left, one of Havana's most an- 
cient and interesting churches, locat- 
ed on a high hill overlooking the 
city from the southward. 

Luyano, is a new line circling the 
upper bay, taking one past Havana's 

Cerro, goes to the suburb of that 
name, a very pretty residential dis- 
trict, thickly built with veritable mar- 
ble palaces, surrounded with bright 
tropical gardens. 

Principe, has its terminal at the 
foot of Principe Hill, where the gov- 
ernment penitentiary is now located. 
The building used is an old fortress 
built in the seventeenth century to 

protect the city of Havana from at- 
tacks from the westward. It is an in- 
teresting place and well worth the 
visit of the tourist. The grounds for 
hundreds of yards in every direction 
have been tunnelled for the purpose 
of planting mines so that attacking 
forces would be destroyed at the will 
of those within the fort. This line 
also passes the famous Tacon Market. 

Universidad, goes by Havana Uni- 
versity, where an excellent bird's eye 

The only large building at the cor- 
ner of Central Park, east, the center 
of the city, is the Apple Gomez Block 
which, in Spanish, is too difficult for 
the visitor to undertake to remember. 
The words "Hotel Plaza" are eaey to 
remember, and are known by every 
one in Havana, and it will be a good 
point for you to start from and re- 
turn to. 

For the benefit of the traveler and 
tourist, and in order that they may 

cuted, and the celebrated "Laurel 
Ditch." Then in a steam launch 
cruise to the "Maine" and harbor. 

No. 2. Automobiles, sight- Seeing, 
visiting celebrated Obispo Street Ca- 
thedral where the remains of Colum- 
bus were. President's palace, senate 
building, the Columbus Memorial 
Chapel, Castle La Fuerza, artistic 
Mercedes church, where beautiful 
paintings are to be seen; passing Co- 
lon Market, through Queen street, to 

view of the city can be obtained. The 
line extends also to Columbus Ceme- 
tery, a burial ground unlike any to 
be seen anywhere in the United 
States. Despite its gruesome purpose 
this cemetery is so beautiful as to be 
very attractive to the visitor and is 
one of the interesting sights of the 
city. Costly monuments and beauti- 
ful tombs built above the ground com- 
mand the admiration of every one who 
sees it. 

recognize a central guide, on this page 
is published a cut of the Hotel Plaza 


Excursions from the Central Bureau 
of Information, Hotel Plaza building: 

No. 1. Visiting the Morro Castle 
and historical Cabanas Portresses 
showing its old dungeons, secret pas- 
sages where political prisoners were 
kept, and place where they were exe- 

the Botanical Gardens, General Wey- 
ler's summer home, to Colon Ceme- 
tery, and then to the beautiful su- 
burb of Vedado, where fine country 
homes can be seen, thence to Camp 
Columbia, general army headquarters, 
over fine roads, twenty-five miles' 
drive through beautiful scenery, pine- 
apple groves, tobacco plantations, 
and beautiful Royal palm avenue; in 
returning visiting the great Vento 
waterworks, through the historical 

town of Jesus del Monte back to the 

No. 3. One of the most delightful 
and interesting and by far the most 
popular of the shorter excursions from 
Havana, is that by the electric inter- 
urban railroad to the great sugar mill, 
Providenoia, 35 miles southeast of 
Havana, which enables the tourist to 
enjoy the charming tropical scenery 
through which this railroad passes, 
and to see the wonders of a large 
modern sugar mill in operation — one 
of the most intersting sights imagin- 
able. The Excursion and Information 
Bureau of the Hotel Plaza are author^ 
ized agents for this excursion and will 
gladly arrange for special or other 
parties to visit the great Providencia 
sugar mill. This splendid excursion 
can be made comfortably during the 
afternoon hours. 

No. 4. To Marianao, the beautiful 
sea bathing resort of Havana, passing 
historical Camp Columbia and Gener-. 
al Lee's headqurters. 

No. 5. Through the city in rubber-, 
tire carriage, visiting Obispo street, 
Columbus Cathedral, senate building, 
presidential palace. Memorial Chapel,, 
old La Puerza Fort, artistic Las Mer- 
cedes church, market, Botanical Gar- 
dens, General Weyler's old country 
home, Cemetery, coming back by the 
aristocratic seaside resort, Vedado, 
Malecon drive, Prado, visiting the 
great club room of Los Dependientes, 
the grandest of its kind in the world, 
built at a cost of nearly $1,000,000. 

No. 6. Another interesting excur- 
sion, among the larger ones the best 
of all, is that to the beautiful city of 
Matanzas, 55 miles east of Havana. 
A splendid excursion is daily avail- 
able to this famous city, leaving the 
Plaza Hotel at 6:30 a. m., thence to 
the historic church of Monserrate. 
located on a high elevation from 
whence grand views may be had of 
the dreamlike valley of the Yumuri— 
famous the world over for its beau- 
ty. Thence the visitor is taken to 
the wonderful caves of Bellamar, the 
inspection of which will provide con- 
stant surprises in the varied and 
beautiful aspects of the marvellous 
crystal formations which convert the 
caves into a subterranean world of 
tairylike character. 

The world offers no more beauti- 
ful sight than sunset on the Malecon,. 





Favorite Resort With the Best Class 
of Traveiers — Has Lately 
Been Rebuiit. 

The Pasaje Hotel is one of the fa- 
mous hostelries of Havana. Though 
now enjoying a building which has 
been built especially for a hotel, it 
has been for twenty years under the 
same management and Urbano Gon- 
zalez and Brothers are known the 
world over by people who have been 
their guests these many years. The 
Pasaje claims that ninety per cent of 
the high class traveling public stop 
as its guests and it is true that the 
percentage is high. It is a hotel that 
holds its guests not tor one visit alone 
but always. It has guests every tour- 
ist season who have been coming to 
Cuba for many years and would no 
more consider going to any other ho- 
tel than they would think of going to 
some home other than their own when 
they return to their northern cities. 
They look upon the Pasaje as their 
winter home, they have favorite 
rooms that they like and these they 
reserve in advance for the winter 
months they spend here year after 

The secret of this hold which the 
Pasaje Hotel obtains upon its 
guests so that they never care to ex- 
periment with other hotels is that in 
the first place visitors are welcomed 
more as friends than as mere tran- 
sients who today are here and tomor- 
row are far away. Every guest is 
treated, even though he is visiting 
Havana for a day or two, as if he had 
come for the season. No service is 
too exacting that the management will 
not be glad to have attended. For 
the purpose there are on every hand 
experienced employes who speak Eng- 
lish and are trained to anticipate ev- 
ery wish of the hotel guest. 

This ideal condition for a hotel is 
not a mere coincidence but the result 
of two things, first twenty years ex- 
perience on the part of Sefior Don 
Urbano Gonzalez, in attending to the 
wants of tourists. He has, one might 
say, grown up with the tourist trade 
in Cuba and therefore has had an op- 
portunity to learn its needs and ne- 
cessities as few other men. He is. 

moreover, a progressive man, in that 
he is not content with what others 
would term "good enough." He is al- 
ways watching to see in what he can 
improve the comfort and convenience 
of his guests. With this idea in 
yiew, every year Sefior Gonzalez takes 
a trip through the United States 
where he visits the best hotels and 
studies them systematically to see in 
what w°v he can apply new things he 
sees there to his own hotel in Havana. 
These are two of the principal rea- 
sons that his hotel is the popular 
place that it is with the traveling 

The Pasaje is located on the Prado, 
the famous promenade that has for a 
hundred years been a feature of this 
ancient and beautiful city. Without 
stirring from the hotel, one can se? 
from its balconies the gaily clad 
throng passing to and fro on holiday 
afternoons and Sundays. Reclining 
in the luxurious rocking chairs in 
one of the spacious Pasaje parlors one 
can have all the pleasure of being 
out on the Prado amidst the throng 
and still be at ease within the hotel. 

Proximity to all of the theaters 
and opera is another feature. No 
opera house or theater is farther than 
three short blocks away, where an 
evening's entertainment is always as- 
sured without the difficulties attend- 
ing a long ride to another part of the 

Central Park is but a half block 
away and to this place of pleasure the 
guest can within a few steps find a 
very enjoyable military band concrt 
several evenings in the week. The 
bands are excellent organizations, and 
a credit to any country in the world. 
Both are led by professors who are 
themselves composers of very high 
merit, their compositions being played 
by many bands of the world. 

The Pasaje has all modern conven- 
iences, including elevators, electric 
lights, electric call bells, telephone in 
every room, private baths and hot and 
cold water. 

A convenience that any traveler will 
appreciate is the location in the hotel 
lobby of a branch of the postoffice. 
Here stamps can be obtained, letters 
registered, money orders bought and 
in fact, almost any postal business 
one needs to transact. 

A cable and telegraph office is also 
located in the lobby enabling the 

guest to send and receive cables with- 
out having to leave the hotel building. 
Cables are transmitted from the hotel 
to any part of the world where cable 
or telegraph lines reach. The gov- 
ernment telegraph lines also run from 
the hotel enaliling messages to be 
sent to any part of the island of Cu- 
ba. No other hotel in Cuba has such 

On every tender meeting every pas- 
senger steamer coming to Havana, 
will be found interpreters of the Ho- 
tel Pasaje. The traveler has but to 
call the name "Hotel Pasaje" and he 
is instantly taken in charge by gen- 
tlemanly guide, reliable and trustwor- 
thy in every way, if he wears a Pa- 
saje badge, and the traveler may be 
instantly relieved of any worry about 
attending his baggage. He can turn 
his checks over to this interpreter 
who will attend to all the red tape of 
passing his baggage through the cus- 
tom house. Relieved of this care th? 
guest has but to step into a coach, 
say "Pasaje" to the driver and be 
quickly driven to the hotel, secure 
that his baggage will follow a short 
time later in one of the wagons of the 
hotel. The cab driver will charge but 
twenty cents for one or two people, 
twenty-five cents for three and thirty 
cents for four. On arrival at the ho- 
tel the traveler is met by polite Eng- 
lish-speaking clerks who will see that 
he is at once pleasantly located. 

The meals served by The Pasaje 
are according to custom of the coun- 
try. This means that there are three 
meals each day, but the early morn- 
ing one is very light, consisting of 
several of the delicious tropical fruits 
and rolls and butter and coffee. The 
other two meals are quite as elabor- 
ate as those served in the best hotels 
in the United States. 

From the hotel trips can be arrang- 
ed for any part of the city or island. 
Experienced guides under the hotel 
management will arrange for private 
excursions for small parties or the 
visitor can go in any one of the sev- 
eral regular excursions which leave 
daily for different points of interest 
in and around the city. There are 
a wide variety of these excursions 
and one can be assured of several 
days' of interesting sightseeing. Go- 
ing with the hotel guides will assure 
one of having every feature of histor- 
ical interest carefully and fully ex- 

plained. The guides have had years' 
of experience and know like a book 
the facts which have gone to make up 
the history of this deeply interesting 

One of the excursions most popu- 
lar with the guests of this hotel is a 
drive about the city in a rubber-tired 
carriage. A limited number of car- 
riages are gotten together for the 
guests and a round is made of the 
greatest points of interest. This, of 
course permits only of an outward 
glimpse of many places but those 
which appeal most strongly can be 
noted down and later visited at more 

Even the despatch of the baggage 

of the guests of this hotel has been 
arranged so as to cause the least pos- 
sible inconvenience. Special arrange- 
ments have been made with an ex- 
press company whereby baggage can 
be checked in the hfttel via Penin- 
sular and Occidental Steamship Com- 
pany, the route going to Florida, on- 
ly two hours before the ship sails. 
Formerly guests had to be packed up 
many hours before they left if they 
wished to have their baggage accom- 
pany them. 


The only "knockers" among Ameri- 
cans in Cuba are those who love it so 
well they are jealous it is not an 
integral part of the United States. 






Famous Hostelry Is Now Newest 
Building In Havana — Thorough- 
. ly Modern in Every Particular. 

The famous Hotel Telegrafo, for 
many years a great favorite with the 
traveling public, has recently joined In 
the modern march in Havana, torn 
down its old building and at large 
cost erected an entirely new structure, 
modern in every line and equipment. 

The Telegrafo as it is now, contains 
eighty large and airy rooms, twice as 
large as the average hotel room in 
the United States. Nearly every room 
has its own alcove and all have mod- 
ern conveniences. Telephones are in 
every room. A central is within the 
hotel so that the guest can talk from 
his room with any phone desired 
throughout the city. 

Hot and cold water is supplied to 
every room and the bath rooms are 
models of luxury and good taste. 

Every room is furnished with hand- 
some hardwoods of Cuba. No coun- 
try has a larger variety, nor more 
beautiful hardwoods than has Cuba 
and these have been selected with 
rare skill and cause admiration from 
every one who sees them. 

The Telegrafo, since its rebuilding, 
is owned by "Compania General de 
Hotels," of which Mr. Juan Pascual 
is the president. To his energy and 
perseverance is due the successful re- 
organization and rebuilding of the ho- 

The hotel is managed by Guillermo 
del Toro, who is assisted by Senora 
Pilar Somoano del Toro. Both have 
a reputation for successful hotel man- 
agement that extends over many 
years. They are especially successful 
in their endeavors to please tourists 
and it is largely due to them that the 
saying became- common, "Once a Tele- 
grafo guest, always one." 

A feature of the Hotel Telegrafo 
which is not enjoyed by any other ho- 
tel in Havana is telephone connection 
with the restaurant tables. The diner 
is enabled to sit at his table and if 
he is called up or wishes to talk with 
a friend over the phone, he can do 
so without leaving his table. This 
feature is especially appreciated by 
business men. 

Another feature for which the Tele- 
grafo has been famous for many years 
is its ice creams and ices. This de- 

partment is called "Helados de Paris," 
which translated means "Ices of Par- 
is." The fame of this department is 
justly earned. It is really the only 
place in Havana where every form 
of cream and ice is made and made 
as deliciously as anywhere else in 
the world. 

Around the solid mahogany tables 
of the "Ices of Paris," every evening 
one can see the aristocracy of Ha- 
vana gathered. This is especially 

is the most beautiful one in Havana 
of its kind. The bar itself is made of 
solid mahogany and is handsomely 
carved. Costly mirrors held to adorn 
the room and the walls are artistically 

Visitors upon arriving in Havana 
are always met at the steamer's side 
by representatives of the Hotel Tele- 
grafo. They wear caps or badges of 
authority and the newcomer needs 
only to proclaim himself as desirous 


Output of La Dlligencia Has Received 
Prizes at Best Expositions of 
tht World. 

Havana has m^_y cigar factories, 
but none better and few as good as 
that of La Dlligencia, situated at San 
Miguel 85. 

This factory is owned and operated 
by Sr. Pedro Moreda, a man with 


true after the theaters or after the 
opera. On opera nights the place is 
brilliant with dazzling Cuban woman- 
hood, attired in elegant Paris gowns, 
and displaying an immense wealth of 

No other place has been so favored 
In past years for the holding of ban- 
quets. State banquets invariably have 
the Telegrafo as the caterer. 

Special mention must be made of 
the elegant bar of the Telegrafo. It 

of being a Telegrafo guest and one of 
the representatives will immediately 
take charge of his baggage and see 
that it is promptly and safely passed 
through the customs and delivered to 
the hotel. All the hotel runners speak 
English and know how to attend the 
wants and needs of the tourist. 

In the hotel proper nearly all em- 
ployes speak English and are all care- 
fully trained servants who have had 
years of experience in the same hotel. 

many years of experience in the to- 
bacco business and one who knows it 
thoroughly in all of its many intri- 
cate branches. So well has Sr. Mo- 
reda managed his factory, he has suc- 
ceeded in prospering in spite of the 
desperate competition which has 
sprung up during the last twelve 
years. When other factories have 
gone under he has gone on with his 
factory and increasing his output with 
each passing year. 

A secret lies in the continued suc- 
cess of La Dlligencia despite competi- 
tion of other factories with millions 
of capital. The secret is quality. Sr. 
Moreda buys his own tobacco. He 
is never deceived because he knows 
tobacco. Other manufacturers have 
to depend upon the intelligence and 
honesty of their buyers and if a bad 
lot of tobacco is bought unawares it 
is worked up with the good and grad- 
ually gotten rid of. 

La Dlligencia h;is been awarded 
many prizes and medals in various 
expositions throughout the world 
Several premiums and medals hav© 
been awarded at different times by 
expositions held in Brussels. At the 
exposition held at Amberes in 1894 and 
later at the Louisiana Purchase Expo- 
sition held a few years ago at St. 

Visitors in Havana who wish to 
visit this factory will be assured of 
a warm welcome and will be shown 
all the different branches of pure Ha- 
vana cigar making. 


La Francia at Obispo 97, Is the Best 
Place Where One Can Purchase 
Dainty Lingerie. 

The best store in Havana from 
which to buy fine laces, dainty linen 
and beautiful drawn worK, is the The 
Lace Store, La Francia, at Obispo 
Street, No. 97. 

For many years this place has been 
very popular with tourists because 
In it are obtained the best products 
from the needles of the skillful Span- 
ish women. The designs are worked 
out by the Spanish women during the 
long winter nights in Spain and some- 
times they require months in the mak- 
ing. They can, nevertheless, be ob- 
tained at La Francia at prices that 
are astonishing. 

English is spoken at this store and 
polite clerks take pleasure in showin.g 
the visitor the stock, whether pur- 
chases are made or not. 


Cuba exported last season about 
twice as many crates of pineapples 
as Florida and Porto Rico combined. 

No where in the world are the stars 
brighter or the moon more glorious 
than in Cuba. 





Havana's Bonboniere Equivalent for 
Delmonico's and Martin's — At 
tlie Foot of the Prado. 

W. T. Burbridge of New York, was 
the first to attempt to furnish Ha- 
vana with a hotel acceptable to the 
class of persons who demand luxury 
in comforts during even a limited so- 
journ anywhere, says The Bulletin of 
American Reviews, in a comprehen- 
sive article on New Hotels in Cuba. 
He opened the Miramar and it retains 
the popular favor at once bestowed 
upon it. It is the Delmonico's as 
well as the Martin's of Havana. 

Its location is ideal, for it stands I 
at the foot of the Prado where that 
famous drive comes down to the sea, 
meeting the waterfront boulevard 
(Malecon) at the bandstand by Punta 
Castle, turreted, grey and pictures- 
que. Miramar is small. It is a bon- 
boniere of a hotel, with rooms enough 
to accommodate only the most dis- 
tinguished among the wealthiest visi- 
tors to Cuba. The dining room of the 
Miramar is the handsomest in the 
island. On its walls are panel paint- 
ings, by A. Rodriguez Morel, so ex- 
quisite in coloring one overlooks their 
faulty drawing. At the end of the 
salon is a raised gallery which musi- 
cians occupy during dinner. Never- 
theless, attractive as it is, this din- 
ing room is deserted save in stormy 
weather, for guests prefer the terrace 
or the gardens. 

The terrace is the rendezvous es- 
pecially of foreign residents at the 
hour when the sun goes down beyond 
Vedado, lighting all the intervening 
sea and the sky above the zenith 
with flaring color. At the polished 
tables of native hardwoods, arranged 
along all the seasward side of the 
hotel one may find between five and 
six on any afternoon, the leading 
business men of Havana; they are as 
unfailing in attendance as the habi- 
tues of a favorite club. Here, too, 
ladies, come from shopping or their 
afternoon drive for an ice or tea, are 
accustomed to meet to chat together. 
Before them passes as on parade 
along Malecon the endless chain of 
conveyances in which all Havana is 
"'taking the air" at the sunset hour. 
Steamers entering or leaving port 

negotiate the narrow mouth of the 
harbor within a stone's throw of the 
driveway; or, again, it is a white- 
sailed schooner beating in under Ca- 
banas, whose moss-patched walls 
glow pink in the evening light. As 
the southern night falls, thick and 
quickly, whirling carriages and auto- 
mobiles seen from Miramar become 
animated silhouttes against a burning 
background in the west. When the 
flare of sunset burns low and out their 

red lights. In the sanded arena the 
diners seated at these encircle, like 
box-holders do a theater's pit, there 
are chairs and smaller refreshments 
tables for crowds enjoying, along 
with the diners, the moving pictures 
thrown nightly on a screen in good 
view of all. The picture the Garden 
presents, especially on a Sunday night, 
when "all the world" brings his lady 
along, is more varied and interesting 
than any cinematograph exhibits. 

house duties on jewelry is practically 
nothing, while in the United States 
they are exorbitant. 

Paris, France, is a favorite place 
tor Americans who wish to buy jewels 
of rare design, because of their rea- 
sonableness, but it is no longer neces- 
sary to go to Europe to obtain such 
things. This is because in Havana 
i there are located branches of one of 
I the foremost jewelry firms of France, 
1 that of A. and S. Campignon of 22 


lamps are lighted till, in the darkness, 
these seem each a link in a running 
chain of intermittent glow. Now and 
then a touring car drawing -up at the 
curb turns the inquisitive eye of its 
searchlight upon those at table. 
They sit long. 

The Miramar Gardens, entrance 
from the Prado or through the dining 
salon of the hotel, are overhung with 
balconies, and there are pagodas, 
where tables are set, under twinkling 


Rare Jewels Can Be Obtained at A. 
and S. Campignon at Prices Un- 
heard of in the States. 

Havana is the place of all places 
in the New World to buy handsome 
diamonds and jewels of every kind. 
They can be bought here for a frac- 
tion of the cost in the United States. 
The reason is that here the custom 

Place Vendome, Paris. 

The firm of Campignon have two 
branches in Havana. One is located 
in the Hotel Inglaterra and the oth- 
er at 115 Obispo street. They are 
the only exclusive jewellers in Ha- 

This firm makes a specialty of dia- 
monds, rubies, pearls, sapphires, em- 
eralds and all others of the best gems. 
They are set by the most expert 
workmen of France and represent a!l 

that is best in the trade. In no place 
in the world can better workmanship 
or better value be obtained. 

One of the great advantages of 
dealing with such a firm as A. and S. 
Campignon is that every piece is 
guaranteed. The stones are warrant- 
ed to be flawless and the workman- 
ship perfect. Such a guarantee com- 
ing from a firm of responsibility is 
worth something and should be taken 
into consideration by every purchaser. 

In the branches of Campignon 
in this city, English, Spanish, French 
and German are spoken. 

A. and S. Campignon have been do- 
ing business in Havana for several 
years. With each passing year their 
fame has been spreading through the 
United States, caused by the pleased 
customers who each year are aston- 
ished at the rare values they can ob- 
tain here. Up to last year the firm 
did all its business from the Inglaterra 
but the Havana business has grown 
to such an extent that it became nec 
essary to obtain larger quarters on 
Obispo street. This was done, al- 
though the old place of business in 
the Hotel Inglaterra is still maintain- 
ed. The display of jewelry which the 
firm places in one of the windows of 
the hotel is one of the features of 
the famous Louvre sidewalk. Through- 
out the winter season it is one of the 
sights which all visitors seldom fail 
to see. 

During the past summer both A. 
and S. Campignon have been in Paris, 
where they have been making a larger 
purchase of jewels for the coming 
winter season in Havana than they 
have ever made before. There will 
be nothing new in the way of rare 
jewels that they will not have on dis- 
play in their two Havana stores. 

Another feature of this firm is that 
it has a large assortment of unset 
stones of priceless value which will 
be made up in any setting desired by 
the purchaser. The customer can, 
therefore, obtain in Havana anything 
that he could obtain in any of the 
largest and best equipped establish- 
ments in the world. 

No visit to Havana is complete with- 
out a visit to one or both of these 
stores. Whether purchases are made 
or not the visitor will always be 
shown courteous attention. 

Original paintings by the old mas- 
ters are sometimes picked up in Ha- 
vana junk shops. 





Is Situated in a Beautiful Park 
Resplendant With Tropical 

Arriving ia Havana, the first im- 
pression of the tourist is to findTiim- 
self transplanted in a country half 
oriental and half tropical, and when 
he leaves he generally has th« feel- 
ing that h'e cannot be happy again 
until he returns to the beautiful is- 
land of Cuba. 

But as beautiful as the country 
might seem to the tourist in general, 
only the visitor who has been to the 
Hotel "Campoamor" at Cojimar, 
twenty-five minutes from the ferries, 
right from the heart of Havana, can 
fully understand how splendid this 
Pearl of the Antilles is. 

The Hotel "Campoamor," which 
translated into English means "The 
Field of Love," is situated in one of 
the most charming parks, resplendant 
with tropical vegetation, a well- 
stocked farm where everything that 
Is put on the table is raised, is con- 
nected with the hot€l. 

It is a real paradise for people who 
seek quiet and love the beautiful; an 
Eden for the young land vigorous, 
-vao love outdoor sports such as 
sea bathing, fishing, riding, driving, 
oennis and automobiling. A Mecca 
tGT every lover of the artistic, the ad- 
mirer of sea and landscapes. 

This hotel counts among its 
staunchest friends, the greatest paint- 
ers and artists of the day, and wher- 
<iver a man or woman with artistic 
Inclination comes from, they are sure 
to return to this lovely spot. 

The hotel itself is 140 feet above 
the sea level and from every room a 
most beautiful view of Havana, the 
harbor and the surrounding country 
is obtainable. The house is modem 
in every respect; every room with 
bath, and conducted on the American 
and European plans. The prices are 
moderate and the management feels 
confident that every visitor to Cuba 
will be happier for his stay at this 
beautiful Hotel "Campoamor." 

The hotel is easiest reached from 
the Muelle de Luz ferry to Casa 
Blanca, where an automobile bus 
awaits the tourist to bring him to the 
door of the hotel The buses run ev- 

ery two hours on week days, and ev- 
ery hour on Sundays. The hotel is 
also accessible by three or four other 
ways, and for the automobile owner, 
or the tourist who hires an automo- 
! bile during his stay, there is a beauti- 
ful and well-kept government road 
around the bay which brings him in 
about forty-five minutes from Central 
Park to the "Campoamor." For the 
convenience of these tourists, a large 
garage with every modern improve- 

palms and foliage plants in the cen- 
ter, leaving a spacious dining salon in 
one end, overlooking the open sea, and 
the other side is given to the social 
hall and office. 

Around the entire first floor is a 
wide, tiled veranda, where the guests 
promenade as on the deck of an ocean 
steamer, the beautiful blue waters of 
the Gulf of Mexico always before their 
view, with trees, palms and tall ba- 
nana leaves waving in the breeze. 

winding its way up hill and down 
dale as far as the mountains of Pinar 
del Rio and Matanzas. 

At the foot of the elevation upon 
which "Campoamor" (The Field of 
Love) is situated, nestles the village 
of "Cojimar" with its quaint and col- 
ored tiled roofs, its castle and old 
church, and with its large belfry, 
looking as peaceful as though it were 
a thousand miles from the sombre 
Morro Castle instead of five. 

etc., with walks artistically arranged 
for the visitor to admire Nature's 
abundant growth in vegetation, with 
which Cuba is so generously provided. 

Last, but not least, is that the Hotel 
"Campoamor" is conducted by J. Hof- 
fer, who has had experience in lUe 
United States, France, England and 
the Orient, and has been connected 
with such houses as the Hotel Cecil, 
London; Grand Hotel, Paris; Ghezirah 
Palace, Cairo; Galle Face, Colombo, 
Ceylon, etc., and has made it a study 
to make all of his guests feel that 
they are at home, and that they would, 
like to return again and again. 


Has Interesting Old Relics of Former 
Days in Cuba — Was Founded 
by Velazquez. 


ment has been built on the grounds, 
quarters for chauffeurs have been 
provided, and everything has been 
done to make our visitors as comfort- 
able as possible. 

One of the most interesting features 
of the Hotel "Campoamor" is its 
charming architecture, which is typi- 
cally Spanish in style and very right- 
ly termed "Palacio Campoamor." The 
main floor of the hotel is one im- 
mense hall. It is divided by tropical 

Above the third floor is a large roof 
garden covering the entire roof 
space, and above this is a stairway 
leading to the circular walk surround - 
ing the tiled dome, from which height 
one can behold the most magnificent 
panorama of mountain, valley and sea- 
view imaginable, with the lights and 
buildings of Havana and Morro Castle 
in the distance. For miles and miles 
one can trace the beautiful white road 
with large shade trees on each side. 

Into the Cojimar bay runs a pic- 
turesque creek, not more than one- 
half mile from the hotel, where the 
finest of trout and other fish are to 
be found. No fisherman could de- 
sire more of a paradise of beauty of 
scenery and natural coloring in 
which to cast his rod and reel. 

In the luxurious garden surround- 
ing the "Campoamor" are endless va- 
rieties of fiowering and foliage plants, 
fruit trees and many species of palms. 

Of great romantic interest is the old 
town of Bayamo. It has only recently 
been touched by a railroad. This means 
the resurrection of the noble town, 
which is admirably situated in the 
midst of a territory very rich in min- 
erals, timber, cane and pasture lands. 

A large number of buildings have 
already been erected on the sites of 
old ruins. 

One of the most interesting of the 
ruins to be seen in Bayamo is that 
of the Convent of San Francisco. In 
its patio there are buried the remains 
of Dona Isabel de Cuellar, a niece of 
Don Diego Velazquez, the founder of 
Bayamo, of Santiago and of six other 
towns. She died in 1620, and where 
her remains lie is marked by a marble 
slab devoted to her memory by her 
husband, Don Rodrigo de Velasco. 

The Convent of San Francisco is 
beautifully situated on a small emi- 
nence on one of the edges of the 
town. From the well kept vegetable 
garden, there is seen, near the banks 
of the river, a big ceiba tree standing 
in haughty loneliness in the midst of 
verdant pastures with the Sierra 
Maestra for a background. Beneath 
that tree, there used to be erected 
in time gone by the scaffolds on 
which criminals paid for their crimes 
with their lives. The view near the 
close of day is weird, sombre, terri- 
bly beautiful! 

Frost never comes to Cuba. 


One of the Best Tracks in the World 
Will Be Built— A $25,000 Derby 
Will Be a Feature. 

Cuba Is the natural playground of 
the United States and Canada. Sit- 
uated as it is, far from the blighting 
frost line, and brilliant the year round 
with tropical flower? and foliago; 
blest with a climate that makes it one 
eternal springlims when ico iiuii snow 
prevail in the North, it is the one ideal 
place for those who seek to escape 
the rigors of their home clime. 

Amusement as well as an ideal cli- 
mate is what is sought by those who 
visit Cuba. Havana has always had 
many things to interest visitors, but 
it has lacked some sport that would 
not only interest for a few days but 
hold that interest for months. 

This one amusement which has been 
lacking is to be supplied this win- 
ter. One of the best race tracks for 
horses in the world will be built and 
the first meeting will be held Decem- 
ber 15, 1911. 

The purses for the races will be of 
such size as to prove attractive to 
the best horsemen in the business, 
and it is to be conducted by men who 
have made a success of horse racing 
in places where the "Sport of Kings" 
has attained its highest perfection. 
A $25,00 Derby. 
A $25,000 derby is one of the purses 
planned. The management has been 
promised by officials of the govern 
ment that a Derby purse of that kind 
will be supplied. In addition the as- 
sociation will on its own account give 
a $10,000 handicap and will offer at 
least two stakes each week ranging 
in size from $1,500 to $5,000. The 
other purses will range from $500 to 
$1,000. The meet will continue for 
90 to 100 days. 

In addition to horse racing it is 
planned in another year to add auto 
mobile racing to the list of amuse- 
ments. Arrangements have been made 
for the purchase of sufficient land 
adjoining the present track to build 
a modern track which will be without 
a superior for racing of this character. 
It is the intention of the Association 
to offer prizes which will astonish 
the automobile racing world. 
International shooting meets are al- 

so among future amusements which 
will be offered which will be suffi- 
will be ofefred which will be suffi- 
ciently large to be atractive to the 
best marksmen. 

An Ideal Location. 
Havana's race track has a location 
that is ideal in every way. It com- 
mands a beautiful view of the Gulf of 
Mexico on one side. On the other 
sides are the back hills of Havana 
the Almendares river, and Camp Co- 
lumbia. The way to the track is 


El Almendares Fabrica de Cemento 
Makes a Portland Cement as Good 
as Any In the World. 

An important industry rapidly grow- 
ing in Cuba is that of making Portland 
cement. This industry is being de- 
veloped by the company known as El 
Almendares Fabrica de Cemento. The 
trade mark of the cement is "Volcan,'' 

stalled its plant in 1902 and then dou 
bled its capacity in 1907. Prepara- 
tions are now under way to double the 
capacity of the plant again. Its pres- 
ent capacity is 200,000 barrels a year. 

This company makes but one prod- 
uct — Portland cement. The result is 
that every man connected with the 
industry is able to concentrate his en- 
ergies to pleasing customers and 
maintaining the fame which the com- 
pany has justly earned for manufact- 


along Havana's bey.utilul IMalecon, ;ra( 
of the most beautiful driveways in 
the world and ideal for automobilists. 

The meet will be under the aus 
pices of the International Jockej 
Club, organized in Havana about two 
years ago, with a paid up capital of 
$500,000. Among the stockholders are 
some of the most prominent of Cuba's 
officials and various race track men 
of wide renown in racing circles in the 
United States. 

and it is rapidly superceding the ce- 
ments imported from the United 

This company has 90 hectares of 
land on the banks of the Almendares 
river, and immediately surrounding 
its factory. On this land is seeming- 
ly an exhaustible supply of the ma- 
terial for making cement of the best 
quality. An idea of the progress of 
the institution is obtained when it is 
told that the company completely rein- 

uring a cement that competes favor 
ably in quality and price with any 
cement in the world. 

An advantage that the cement man- 
ufactured in Cuba has over cements 
that are imported is that it is all care- 
fully inspected by the Cuban govern- 
ment. As the government is using 
thousands of barrels of the cement in 
its public buildings a special inspector 
has been detailed to inspect the man- 
ufacture in all its details so that all 

of the output comes up to the stand- 
ard. The result of this provision Is 
that all the cement has the govern- 
ment's certificate of approval. 

The machinery employed by the Al- 
mendares Cement Company is moderi 
in every particular. It has four enor- 
mous rotary kilns and a motor force 
of 1,500 h. p., and a central electric 

The transportation facilities of the 
cement factory could not be better. 
Schooners come up to its docks on the 
shore of the Almendares river and 
load the cement for all the important 
ports of Cuba. There is also a branch 
of the Havana Electric Railways with- 
in the grounds and by this means the 
cement can be delivered direct to any 
of the stations in Havana. 

The fame of the "Volcan" brand of 
cement manufactured by this company 
is spreading with each passing year. 
It has been manufactured a sufficient 
time now to prove its efficiency ana 
lasting qualities. It has been proveu 
to resist the sun, fire, sea water, hur- 
ricanes and cyclones. 

C. H. Diguet is president of the Al- 
mendares company. He is at present 
in Europe purchasing new machinery. 
To his energies is greatly due the 
credit which "Volcan" cement has ob- 
tained in Cuba. He has shown him- 
self to be a man of great ability at 
the head of an important industry. 
President Diguet has been ably assist- 
ed in his work by E. Descamps, the 
general commercial agent. He has 
been the one with whom the public 
has dealt and has done much toward 
making customers feel that their best 
interests are those that the company 
wishes to fill. His offices are located 
at O'Reilly 110, and he is always ready 
to attend tbe wants of those who wish 
to discuss cement. 

The "Volcan" cement has obtained 
honors elsewhere than in Cuba. It re- 
ceived a premium in the Paris Expo- 
sition of 1900; in Buffalo in 1901, and 
in St. Louis in 1904. and in Havana 
in 1909. 

The company El Almendares Fab- 
rica de Cemento has a capital of 

Cuba's undelveloped resources are 


You will enjoy a visit to Cuba. 





Has Perpetual Right to Install Local 
and Long Distance Telephone 
System Throughout Island. 

The Cuban Telephone Company is 
incorporated under the laws of Dela- 
ware, U. S. A., and holds a concession 
granted by the Republic of Cuba pur- 
suant to a special law dated the 19th 
of July, 1909, which confers upon the 
Company a perpetual right to install 
and operate a general local and long 
distance telephone system throughout 
the entire island. The city of Ha- 
vana and some 94 towns and munici- 
palities are specifically mentioned In 
the concession, but the system is not 
limited to these towns as it may be 
extended to any and all parts of I he 
island at the option of the Company. 

The Company began service on the 
10th of September, 1909, taking over 
the old telephone system of Havana, 
which was continued in service until 
the 17th of October, 1910, when it was 
practically destroyed by a cyclone. 
At that date the new automatic sys- 
tem was practically completed and the 
Company had in operation in Havana 
some 4,000 automatic telephones. The 
system has since grown to approxi- 
mately 7,000 telephones. The service 
■las also been extended from Havana 
to Marianao on the west, to Arroyo 
Apolo on the south and to Guines and 
Matanzas on the east, and includes 
in addition to these places the towns 
of Regla, Guanabacoa, Cojimar, Luy- 
ano, San Francisco de Paula, Cotorro, 
Cuatro Caminos, San Jose de las La- 
jas. La Catalina, Sabana de Robles, 
Madruga and Seiba Mocha. A new 
automatic plant has also been install- 
ed in the town of Cienfuegos and 
opened up for service on July 16, 1911. 

Some 450 subscribers have been in- 
stalled in Cienfuegos proper and the 
long distance line extended from that 
town to Palmira and Cruces enroute 
to Santo Domingo where it will con- 
nect with the principal trunk line 
from Havana to Santiago. The Com- 
pany is under a bond to complete the 
long distance service from Guane on 
the west to Santiago in the Oriente 
by September 10, 1912, and from 
Santiago to Baracoa within one year 
thereafter. Work on this general sys- 
tem is progressing rapidly and at the 
same time the local service of Havana 








is increasing at the rate of about fif- 
teen telephones per day. It is esti- 
mated that the Havana plant alone 
will reach 15,000 subscribers in the 
next two years and that the general 
system throughout the entire island 
will have 25,000 subscribers when 
completed with prospects exceptional- 
ly good for a continued rapid growth 
in the future. 

The construction of this system is 
modern throughout, consisting of un- 
derground cable installations in the 
cities and native hardwood pole lines 
on the long distance routes. No ex- 
pense is being spared in making the 
system of a most modern and perma- 
nent type capable of standing the 
hard wind storms that occasionally 
visit Cuba, as well as other climatic 
difficulties. The absence of ice sleet 
and snow in Cuba, however, renders 
the maintenance of such a system 
correspondingly low and a compari- 
son of the earning capacity of this 
system with a plant of approximately 
the same size in the United States 
shows Cuba to be far in the lead in 
advantages to telephone investors. A 
recent telephone journal of the Unit- 
ed States publishes a report showing 

that in a system of slightly over 7,000 
subscribers the Bell Telephone Com- 
pany has an earning capacity of $40.75 
per telephone with an operating and 
maintenance expense og $28.60, leav- 
ing net $12.15 per annum per tele- 
phone. An independent automatic 
system of approximately the same size 
shows an earning capacity of $31.52 
with operating and maintenance ex- 
pense of $14.86 and net earnings of 
$16.66. The Cuban Telephone Com- 
pany in its last monthly statement 
shows an earning capacity of $65.40 
per telephone with operating and 
maintenance expenses of $13.56 and 
net earnings per annum per telephone 
of $51.84. 

The independent automatic service 
referred to in this statement shows 
considerable advantage over the man- 
ual system, but with slightly over 
7,000 subscribers its net earnings per 
month, while better than that of the 
Bell system, are only approximately 
$5,000. The Cuban Telephone Com- 
pany's net earnings per month for a 
system of slightly less than 7,000 is 
approximately $30,000, six times that 
of the automatic system referred to. 
The per cent telephone expense to 

telephone earnings in these systems 
is shown to be: Bell 75.1; Automatic 
44.6; Cuban Telephone Company (al- 
so automatic) 20.7. In fhe gross re- 
ceipts of the Cuban Telephone Com- 
pany there has been an increase in 
the last twelve months of $12,122.95 
per month, and in the net earnings 
an increase in the same time of $12,- 
200.64 per month. 

The Company's headquarters are 
located at Aguila street, number 153, 
Havana, where the Company has 
erected one of the most substantial 
and up-to-date telephone buildings 
in the world. This building not only 
accommodates the central exchange 
office of Havana b"t has also ample 
room for the general office of the 
Company and the store-room and 
shops. The plant at this building has 
an ultimate capacity of 40,000 sub- 
scribers with equipment already in- 
stalled for 10,000. 

The long distance lines will be of 
No. 10 pure copper on the intermed- 
iate lines and No. 8 pure copper on 
the main trunk lines. 

This service when completed will 
greatly facilitate the rapid develop- 
ment of the island's commercial and 

agricultural interests and its benefits 
are already shown in the territory that 
has thus far been covered by this sys- 
tem. Communications will be had 
as far as Santa Clara by the end of 
present year. 

The Company will expend in its 
construction work of the system 
specified in its concession and in ex- 
tensions and installations not speci- 
fied upwards of $10,000,000. 



The Cuban way of beckoning is just 
the reverse to that employed by most 
people. They raise the open hand 
with the palm outward, bending the 
fingers toward the person they are 
calling, a gesture which people of 
most countries would interpret to go 


Havana might be a fabled city of 
the summer seas as it api)ears to the 
visitor upon entering the harbor. 


Proper investments in Cuba pay 
dollar dividends where cents are paid 

Frost jiever comes to Cuba. 







It Is Well Settled With Americans 
Who Are Making a Success of 
Citrus Fruits. 

There was for a long time in Cuba 
a need for a company that would 
purchase a large tract of land and 
divide it into small tracts in the 
reach of everyone. This need has 
not been better supplied than by the 
Herradura Land Company, an organi- 
zation with a capiptal of $440,000 ful- 
ly paid up. Its offices are at Zulueta 
9, Havana, Cuba, and at Herradura, 
Cuba. The president is T. H. Har- 
ris of Havana; the general manager, 
C. M. Johnson, also of Havana. O. 
H. Johnson of Minneapolis, Minn., is 
vice president. 

This company has a large tract of 
land adapted to oranges, grape fruit, 
(soil is a deep sandy loam), pineap- 
ples, vegetables, tobacco. It offers 
farm lands, town lots and planted 
groves for sale. It is also prepared 
to contract for the planting of citrus 
groves to order. The orchard propo- 
sition is in no sense a speculation or 
"get rich quick scheme," but it is 
an opportunity for legitimate invest- 
ment, which promises unusually 
large returns, especially in view of 
Its unquestionable safety. Fruit grow- 

ers in Cuba have the advantage of 
very cheap freight rates. This is 
understood better when it is stated 
that, owing to the fact that the great- 
er part of the transportation is by 
water, the Cuban grower can place 
his fruit in New York and other east- 
ern and middle western states for 
less money than can the growers in 
either Florida or California. 

is an American colony, in the prov- 
ince of Pinar del Rio, established in 
the years 1905 and 1906. 

The Western Railroad from Ha- 
vana passes seven miles through this 
land, and on either side of the track, 
for a distance of three and a half 
miles, oranges and grape-fruit or- 
chards are seen, from one to five 
years old. The growth of the trees 
has been wonderful. The five-year 
old trees are nine inches in diameter 
and large enough to carry fifteen 
boxes of fruit to each tree, and the 
quality of the fruit has been proven 
superior to the best grown in Cali- 
fornia or Florida. 

There lare about one hundred 
Americans and Canadians living at 
this place, engaged in profitable 
farming and citrus fruit growing. They 
have purchased about ten thousand 
acres of land in different sized farms. 
The Herradura Land Company, 
founders of the colony, still have for 
sale fourteen thousand acres, all of 

which is surveyed and laid out in 
small lots, and is offered for sale 
in any number of acres from five up — 
on easy terms. 

The title to these lands is abso- 
lutely perfect and unencumbered, and 
comes directly from an old crown 
grant. The company is therefore able 
to make warranty deeds to all lands 
sold. This is a point of immense im- 
portance, as all who are familiar with 
conditions in Cuba will fully realize. 
Before these lands were placed on 
the market they were surveyed after 
the American plan and were divided 
into sections, quarter sections, and 
forty acre lots, all corners being 
marked with permanent stakes. 

There is a lake for boating and 
fishing. Quail and wild pigeon are 
plentiful. Deer are very numerous 
and are hunted in the season with 
dogs and on horseback. Well gaited 
saddle horses are for hire, also car- 
riages and automobiles. 

Touring by automobile from Her- 
radura may be enjoyed for hundreds 
of miles through mountains and val- 
leys. The scenery is unsurpassed in 
the world and there are new govern- 
ment roads, the equal of which do not 
exist in the United States of America. 
One of the short trips, a distance of 
twenty miles (which can be made 
with an automobile and over splendid 
roads in from thirty to forty-five 
minutes), is to the fashionable health 

resort and hot sulphur springs of San 
Diego de los Baiios, which are situ- 
ated in the "Organo" mountains. 
There are several large hotels at this 
resort, which are patronized by the 
wealthier class of people. These 
springs are known the world over on 
account of their curative qualities. 

From Havana to Herradura the 
distance is ninety-two miles, over 
government roads, and in an automo- 
bile makes one of the finest trips 

Here, where disagreeable extremes 
in cold and heat are unknown, and 
under the protection of the United 
States of America, is the place where 
the farmer can make four crops a 
year, instead of one, as in northern 

The town of Herradura is located 
on the Western Railroad, ninety: 
miles west of Havana, and near the j 
center of the Herradura lands. It j 
is very certain to make a prosperous 

Its hotel is commodious and well i 
kept, and is a comfortable and pleas- 
ant resort for visitors. It is lighted 
with gas and has running water and 
a bathroom. There are four stores 
where the wants of the settlers are 
well supplied. A free school for the 
accommodation of Americans is 
maintained by the Cuban government, 
where English branches are taught 
by an American teacher. A Cuban 

school is also maintained. There are 
quite a number ot new dwelling 
houses in the town. The principal 
street is built of Telford macadam and 
is always dry and clean. There is a 
telegraph office, postoffice with 
money order department, and twi» 
mails a day are received from the 
States through Havana. 

Being an American colony, social 
conditions are about the same as in 
northern towns. In fact, one can 
scarcely realize that he is outside of 
the United States. Curch and Sun- 
day school organizations, a ladies' 
club which meets weekly, and a hor- 
ticultural society, which also meets 
weekly, are sources of entertainment, 
which causes one to almost forget he 
is in a new country. 

Reasons for Buying. 

Some of the reasons for buying 
Herradura Colony lands are the fol- 

The land is good, and cheap at 

Pure and soft water is abundant 
in running streams and in wells from 
25 to 75 feet deep. 

The climate is even and healthful. 

The location is beautiful, the crops 
are varied and sure and always mar- 

Statistics show an average rain- 
fall of 51-54 inches per annum, for 
a period of 30 years in this part of 
of Cuba. 




handling of the merchandise and 
some notion of the complicated nature 
of it can be formed by the list of 
foremen employed in each packing: 

Encargado de Entongadura (piling 
of green tobacco). 

Encargado de Despalo (stripping 
from stalk). 

Encargado de Moja (casing). 

Encargado de Escojida (sorting). 

Encargado de Engavilleo (making 

62,000 square feet, with a storage ca- 
pacity for 35,000 bales of tobacco. 

Of late years an important industry 
has grown up of taking the stem out 
of cured leaf (stripping) and shipping 
it to the United States in condition 
ready for the cigar manufacturer. As 
with all other branches of their busi- 
ness and to assure absolute reliabili- 
ty, this is done in their own stripping 
establishments of which, in addition 
to the one of which photograph is 

I. Store room. 2. Fronv View of Warehouse. 3. Interior View. 4. Stripping Tobacco. 


They Are the Biggest independent 
Buyers of Tobacco — Offices in 
Havana and New York. 

The present members of this firm 
are Isaac J. Bernheim and Henry J. 
Bernheim, sons of the founder of the 
firm, the late Mr. Jacob Bernheim, 
who started his business career in 
1849, and retired from business in 
1899, after a successful and honorable 
business career extending ove fifty 

When the present members of the 
firm joined their father and first vis- 
ited Cuba in 1882, their exports of 
tobacco from Cuba amounted to 3,500 
bales per year since which time their 
business has grown until they are to- 
day acknowledged to be the largest 
independent buyers of tobacco on the 
island, their annual purchases exceed- 
ing 30,000 bales. 

While they originally started with 
a staff of one buyer, they now em- 
ploy a dozen, some of whom have 
been in their employ upwards of 
twenty years, and in the active sea- 
son they add many additional buyers 
temporarily to their staff. Mr. Rogelio 
Echervarria, who is interested in the 
business, is a man of extensive ex- 
perience, being in charge of their 
operations. They thus cover every 
section growing the better grades of 
merchandise which they buy from the 
farmer direct as soon as the tobacco 
is cut. 

In the handling, curing and sorting 
of the tobacco thus gathered, occu- 
pying about six months each year, 
they give give employment to several 
thousand hands in their various pack- 
ing houses in the country, many of 
which they own, having erected them 
for the special purpose to which they 
are dedicated. 

Packing, curing and handling green 
tobacco is a delicate operation and 
much of the success of the firm can 
no doubt be traced to the personal 
supervision given to it by them; every 
crop packed by them in the last thirty 
years having been under the personal 
supervision of one of the two present 
members of the firm, their efforts be- 
ing ably seconded by their experienc- 
ed organization. 

An experienced foreman is in charge 
of each operation involved in the 

Encargado de Manojeo (making ca- 

Encargado de Entercio (baling). 

When this operation is completed 
the goods are shipped to Havana to 
cure in their warehouse (of which 
various photos are here shown) and 
which was built expressly for the pur- 
pose. It is one of the show places 
of Cuba and probably has no equal for 
tobacco purposes in the world. It oc- 
cupies an entire block, approximately 

I shown above, they operate three oth- 
er plants in the country. 

They export from Cuba to Europe 
as well as to the United States, 
though operating primarily for the 
American market, their New York of- 
fice being at 138 Maiden Lane, be- 
tween which which point and Cuba 
the members exchange places so that 
one or the other can at all times per- 
sonally direct everything appertain- 
ing to their fast growing business. 


Is One of the Most Beautiful Drive- 
ways of the Kind in the World. 
Americans Started It. 

The Malecon is considered one of 
the most beautiful driveways in the 
world. The word Malecon means in 
Spanish, an embankment or wall. It 
consists of a substantial sea wall, 
extending in a curved line from the 

northwest bastion of La Punta to the 
west side of the end of the Prado, pro- 
tecting for the entire length a broad 
concrete promenade and a macada- 
mized driveway. The wall stands 
about thirty feet back from the high 
water line, and an inclined toe with 
stones projecting above its face breaks 
the force of the waves in a storm. In 
the center of the park thus formed 
is a music stand of classical design, 
with twenty Ionic columns supporting 

an entablature and dome, and in- 
scribed with names of the great com. 
posers. The Malecdn overlooks the 
Gulf, the harbor entrance with its 
shipping, and Morro Castle on the op- 
posite heights. Gulf Avenue extend- 
ing in sweeping curves to the west, 
and in the distance the verdant hills 
back of Vedado. The landscape and 
marine vistas are like painted pic- 
tures. Havana's water front is one 
of the noblest among the cities of 
the world. The colors of sea and sky 
tinted houses, with the moss-grown 
forts and waving palms, create an ef. 
feet which is striking at any time 
of the day, but sunset is the hour of 
enchantment. Nor should one fail to 
visit the Malecon at night when the 
long line of electric lights on the 
water-front toward Vedado are re- 
flected in quivering bars and bands of 
radiance from the water, the lights of 
the electric cars are seen creeping 
along the distant heights and the lan- 
tern of the Morro glows and dims and 
glows again. To see the Malec6n by 
moonlight, to mingle with the pleas- 
ure throngs, hear the music and feel 
the caress of the soft Gulf air, is one 
of the most enjoyable experiences of 
Havana . 



First Class Hotel With 100 Rooms 
With Private Bath — Located 
Near Central Park. 

A hotel that is certain to please 
the visitor in Havana is Hotel Grand 
America, at Industria Street No. 160, 
corner of Barcelona. It is between 
Colon Park and Central Park, only 
two blocks from the former and one 
block from the latter. 

This hotel has 100 rooms with 
private bath connected with each. It 
has an electric elevator and all of 
the improvements of a first class hotel 
in the United States. An excellent 
restaurant with French and American 
cuisine is at the convenience of the 
guest. The guest has the choice of 
either the American or European 

The proprietor of the hotel, Manuel 
Dur^n, is a man with long experience 
in the hotel business. 


The lover of the antique will feel 
at home in Havana. 






Almendares Bridge a Monumental 
Structure of Steel and Concrete — 
Roque Canal Fifty-Two Ki- 
lometers Long. 

Among the great works built or 
building in the island of Cuba dur. 
ing the last few years none are of 
greater interest than the Almendares 
Bridge and the Roque Canal. The 
bridge is the largest of its kind in 
Cuba; the canal is fifty-two kilome- 
ters long and reclaims many square 
miles of valuable land which would 
otherwise be annually overflOT.ed by 
the Roque floods. The bridge was 
completed July 15, 1910, by the con- 
tracting and engineering firm of 
Champion and Pascual and the same 
firm has the contract for building the 
canal in Matanzas province. 


This mammoth bridge spans the 
river Almendares and consists of a 
river span of 190 feet, three spans 
of 102 feet 2 inches each, and a small 
roadway span. It is 710 feet long 
and 50 feet wide. The roadway is 
48 feet above the surface of the river 
and has a width of 34 feet between 
curbs. There is a five-foot sidewalk 
on either side. 

About 36,000 lineal feet, or seven 
miles, of piles were driven in the pier 
foundations to rock. 

The structure contains about 10,000 
cubic meters of concrete and about 
400,000 pounds of steel rods. These 
rods are scientifically arranged and 
imbedded in the concrete, in such a 
manner that the steel will sustain all 
the tensil stresses and the concrete 
will withstand the compression. 

Each of the six arches is composed 
of six parallel ribs of concrete. Rein- 
forced concrete columns rest on these 
ribs, extending up to the reinforced 
floor beams; these beams carry the 
floor slab, which is eight inches 
thick and reinforced with five- 
eighths-inch square steel rods five 
inches apart, transversely and three, 
eighths-inch rods, two feet apart 

rivo hundred thousand tret if lui.-- 
bT were employed in the tonus ar.d 
fii'sjcwork. The curves of the arches 
art -iot circular but parabolic. The 
design ai^„ orection of the falseworK 
for these gigantic arches represented 
a large part of the work and a great 
deal of engineering skill. So great 
was the weight to be carried by the 
falsework and at such a height in 
mid.air that the strength of each tim- 
ber and bolt in the structure had to 

Ta\ana, while Mr. G. B. Strickler 
repreFcn.,ed the designer. 

The engineering and contracting 
firm of Champion and Pascual has 
been in business in Cuba for about 
twelve years. They have installed 
the largest number of ice plants in 
Cuba and [erected many steel and 
concrete bridges throughout the is- 
land and constructed roads and 
buildings. Their chief engineer, Mr. 

of the Boston Society of Civil En- 

The beautiful and colossal Almen- 
dares bridge will stand as a monu. 
ment to its builders and as a credit 
to the province of Havana for cen- 

Great credit is due the firm of 
Champion and Pascual and their chief 
engineer, Mr. Allard, in the execu- 
tion of such gigantic work, for the 
care and skill with which it has been 


be carefully computed .as well as the 
loads which each member sustained. 

This great piece of work was de- 
signed by Wm. Barclay Parsons of 
New York city, one of the leading 
civil engineers of the present time, 
who has been identified with many 
of the great engineering works of our 
hemisphere and also in the Far East. 

The work was under the direction 
of Sr. Francisco Franquiz, director 
of public work of the province of 

Thos. Throp Allard, has been con- 
nected with many of the large en. 
gineering works in the United States, 
including the Metropolitan Water 
Supply system, and the Metropolitan 
Sewerage system in Massachusetts, 
the Boston Elevated railroad and 
various other engineering works in 
the east and in the west. He was 
for several years in charge of con- 
struction work in the United States 
War Department. He is a member 

brought to completion. Experts pro- 
nounce it to be among the finest as 
to design and quality of execution. 
The Roque Canal. 
Bids were opened on March 3 and 
the contract was awarded to the 
firm of Champion & Pascual on April 
10, 1911. The award was made by 
the secretary of public works, and 
signed by the president of the Re- 
public. The proposal of Champion & 
Pascual was for $1,629,724.76. 

The specifications call for a canal 
which shall be 52 kilometers long 
and ranging in width from 110 to 300 
feet. Its depth will range from 4 
to 30 feet. 

Requires Costly Machinery. 

To execute this work Champion and 
Pascual have acquired a plant cost- 
ing $200,000. This includes dredges, 
excavators, drills, etc. Each machine 
generates its own electricity so that 
the work is carried on night and day. 
Engineer in Charge. 

The Roque Canal is under the di- 
rection of Thomas T. Allard, chief 
engineer for Champion & Pascual, 
and Assistant Engineer Herbert W. 
Tufts. The engineer for the govern- 
ment is Luis F. Ramos, formerly the 
chief engineer of the province of 

j The duration of the work Is calcu- 
lated at two and a half years. 

On Sunday, July 13, 1911, a special 

; train conveyed President Jos6 Mi- 
guel Gomez, the members of his cab- 
inet, the governors of Havana and 
Matanzas provinces, and other high 
dignitaries, to the town of Maximo 
Gomez and thence to the point where 
the vast engineering work of canali- 
zation of the Roque district had its 
beginning. Before an assemblage of 
about three thousand spectators the 
president mounted the platform of 
the enormous "Bucyrus" excavator 
and, after a short talk with Erecting 
Engineer John T. McCoy, and with 
remarkable ease, set the ponderous 
machinery in movement and exca- 
vated several bucketfuls of earth. 
Shaking hands effusively with the 
contractors and their engineer, the 
president stated that he was more 
than pleased at the auspicious open- 
ing of operations and hoped that the 
work would continue with the speed 
the exigencies of the case demanded. 
Purpose of the Canal. 
The purpose of this canal is to 
prevent the continuous floods which 
yearly spread devastation throughout 
the rich Roque valley. Each year 
these floods cover an increased acre- 
age ruining all growing crops often- 
times resulting in the loss of human 
life and always in the loss of much 
live stock. By the building of the 
canal thousands of acres of rich cane 
land will be reclaimed. 

The canal will have its beginning 
at Caracas and find its outlet at a 
point near the city of Cardenas. 





Rise of Vuelta Abajo— Development 
of Cuba's Second Important 

Cuba produces the best tobacco the 
world knows. The best of the Island's 
entire crop is grown in Pinar del Rio, 
the western province of the republic. 
The cream of that province's produc- 
tion originates within the narrow con- 
fines of the genuine Vuelta Abajo dis- 
trict, which is the region lying be- 
tween Consolaoion del Sur and the 
sea, on the north, west and south. 
If fine distinction may be drawn be- 
tween the finest, the very best of this 
best tobacco is that produced in the 
lowlands, south of the Organo Moun- 
tains, in the vicinities of San Luis, 
San Juan y Martinez and Remates. 

Tobacco culture in this Island did 
not make its beginning in Pinar del 
Rio. Cuba was supplying Europe with 
tobacco considered superior to that ot 
the mainlands of the Americas, grown 
in the east and center of this country, 
and all about Havana, long before the 
territory which is now Pinar del Rio 
had a name, to say nothing of a gov- 
ernment, or any legitimate agriculture 
or commerce of its own. 

Beginning of Tobacco Industry. 

Before the commencement of the 
17th century, wherever the veguero 
(grower) was able to wrest half a 
chance from adverse conditions and 
neighbors, mostly stockmen, entirely 
inimical to him, the little patches of 
cultivated ground which were his ve- 
gas (fields) had made their appear- 
ance along the banks of the rivers 
Guanabo and Canasi on the north, and 
those af the Arimao, Caracucey and 
Agabama on the south side of the 
island. Towns grew up where he 
prospered. His fields surrounded Ha- 
vana, to the exclusion of other crops. 
By the middle of the 17th century to- 
bacco culture was the principal busi- 
ness of the country people of Cuba, 
even in those parts whence sugai 
cane has driven it since. Yet none 
of the leaf finding its way to th» 
storerooms of the Council of the In- 
dies in Seville, came from Pinar dei 

Before the end of the 17th century, 
however, some few growers had tak- 
en up more or less permanent habita- 
tion in the far west. What is a sep- 

arate province now was at the time a 
nominal part of Havana's jurisdiction, 
but only corsairs knew its coasts, and 
few save runaway slaves and fugitive 
Indians traveled its plains, or pene- 
trated the highlands of its northern 

Those western mountaineers fought 
for the bare privilege of growing their 
crops. They were at war with the 
vested rights of cattlemen who held 
title to the west country. 

pelled by law to allow it, they refused 
to permit the tobacco-grower to cut 
fence posts on their land, at the same 
time letting their stock range the 
neighborhood, and, incidentally, tram- 
ple the tobacco plants down. If the 
veguero resented this and killed the 
cattle, he was liable to the law or to 
the even more summary judgment of 
the owners. Vegueros considered, 
moreover, that the stock raising pro- 
prietors were bound to allow them the 

proprietors might grant everything 
asked of them in the way of land for 
seedbeds and tobacco fields, but 
charge the grower a prohibitive rent 
for other land on which his. bohio 
(shack) and the truck garden where 
he raised his foodstuffs stood, thus 
making existence impossible for him. 

For his part, the veguero retaliate;! 
as best he could. His very name was 
synonymous with thief; he plundered 
his neighbor's chicken coop, caught 


Veguero Versus Cattlemen. 

These proprietors owned land grant- 
ed to them in tremendous circles, the 
centers only of which were known; 
the circumferences were undetermin- 
ed. Being unable to prove definitely 
what was theirs the cattlemen in ques- 
tion laid claim to everything in sight. 
Sometimes they permitted vegueros 
to cultivate the hanks of streams 
through their ranches; sometimes they 
declined to do so, or, being later com- 

use of convenient parcels of ground 
for the sowing and cultivation of seed- 
lings; the cattlemen held that it was 
their option whether they should con- 
cede the favor or not. Sometimes 
they generously allowed the use of 
lands for seedbeds, but saw to it that 
the small tracts so ceded were at such 
distances from the other tract on 
which they permitted the veguero to 
make his home that he could not prop- 
erly attend to them at night. Again 

his hogs as they wandered in the 
woods, and slaughtered fat calves no 
matter who their owner might be, 
whenever he needed meat. 

Friends With Pirates. 
At war with constituted authority 
and his neighbors who appealed to it 
to oppress him, on land, the western 
veguero was friendly with every float- 
ing representative of lawlessness on 
the high seas. Spain's enemies, bent 
on rifling her colonial possessions. 

pirates, and the smugglers who suc- 
ceeded them, all alike, represented to 
the tobacco grower a welcome and 
profitable market. 

Foreign vessels, and vessels which 
flew no flag of any nation, were fre- 
quent visitors to western ports. The 
veguero, far from taking shelter in 
towns (of which there were next to 
none), thereby inviting the violence ot 
raids went down to the harbor to 
greet the visitors and in all friendli- 
ness to deliver to them for merchan- 
dise, or cash, tobacco which, reaching 
Europe, roused the admiration of con- 
noisseurs at courts. 

Regardless of Law. 

Incidentally, it may be surmised 
that this disposition of the western 
product aroused also the indignation 
of the Spanish monarch whose trade 
laws were so effectively violated; but 
Spain had as yet no force in the dis- 
trict, since become the Province . of 
Pinar del Rio, sufficient to prevent 
traffic between vegueros and "foreign 
pirates." Therefore it continued. In 
other parts of the island tobacco cul- 
ture was controlled — encouraged now 
by a ruling in favor of the grower, 
hampered next by a restriction laid 
on the sale of what he produced under 
that very encouragement. In the 
west, however, cut off as the region 
was by lack of communication with 
Havana, the veguero grew tobacco as 
he could and sold it where a market 
offered, in the capital or elsewhere, 
all with a fine disregard for trade re- 
strictions with which the Spanish ex- 
chequer, endeavoring to wring reve- 
nue from it, almost choked to death 
the tobacco business elsewhere In 

Calls for Quality. 

Between 1765 and 1768, 566,566 
arrobas of tobacco, all grades and 
prices, were exported to Seville. Dur- 
ing the next three years plantings 
and shipments alike increased, but 
there was yet no proper classification 
of qualities — good, bad and indiffer- 
ent tobacco in a heap was dumped 
into the Sevillan factory, quantity be- 
ing as yet the sole object of the state 
officials. At this time government 
monopoly of tobacco was enforced to 
its full limit. All legitimate sale was 
to the Spanish government. 

Then, for the first time, the gov- 
ernment authorities began to consider 
quality in this merchandise. 





Example of What Can Be Done by 
Use of Up to Date Methods of 
Dealings in Cuba. 

In January, 1899, Mr. Thomas H. 
Harris, the president of the present 
firm of Harris Bros. Co., arrived in 
Havana and opened a small store at 
O'Reilly 110, under the name of Har- 
ris Bros. I& Co., in which his two 
brothers and himself were the active 

They commenced their business ca- 
reer in Cuba as agents of the Rem- 
ington typewriter, Columbia bicycle, 
and several other well known special- 
ties. The basic ideas which controll- 
ed them when they began business in 
Cuba was, one price, no misrepresen- 
tations of values or goods, and giving 
the customer a square deal. These 
principles, it is true, were then and 
are now cornerstones of all success- 
ful business in the United States, but 
at that time they had gained very lit- 
tle credence in Cuba and other Latii^- 
American countries, and the buying 
public were accustomed to long bar- 
gaining and discounting to a large 
degree the claims made by the mer- 

The success of the firm in their 
various lines was immediate, and 
from a modest store occupying 30x40 
feet, it has grown into three stores, 
the largest being almost a block in 

The original lines of typewriters, 
stationery, bicycles, etc., have been 
greatly extended, so that at the pres- 
ent time they include besides those 
mentioned— with the exception of 
bicycles — the following: Cash regis- 
ters, photographic supplies, optical 
service and supplies, calcium carbide, 
gas and acetylene fixtures, office 
furniture, etc. They are the exclusive 
agents or representatives of the fol- 
lowing well known companies: 

National Cash Register Company. 

Union Carbide Company. 

Eastman Kodak Company. 

Bausch i& Lomb Optical Company. 

L. C. Smith & Bros. Typewriter Co. 

Adder Machine Company. 

The Gunn Furniture Company. 

A. G. Spalding & Bros. 

American Fountain Pen Company. 

Yawman & Erbe Pen Company. 

In November, 1903, It was deemed 

expedient, in view of the growing op- 
erations of the company, to incorpor- 
ate the business under the laws of 
the state of New Jersey, under the 
nam© of "Harris Bros. Co." 

In 1906 the well known photograph- 
ic and optical business of Lychenheim 
& Company, of which Mr. Jacob Lych- 
enheim was the active head, was ab- 
sorbed by the company. Mr. Lych- 
enheim entered the firm as one of the 
managers and member of the Board of 
Directors. The Board of Directors of 
the company consists of Mr. T. H. 
Harris, president; Mr. I. L. Harris, 
vice president; Mr. E. G. Harris, 
treasurer; Mr. W. F. Champlin, secre- 
tary, and Mr. Jacob Lychenheim. 

In May, 1908, the firm obtained 
through purchase a concession for the 
filling of a small area of land border- 
ing on the Bay of Havana at the point 
known as Atares, situated at the base 
of Atares Castle. 

Recognizing the imperative need of 
the commerce of Havana for improv- 
ed methods and space in handling the 
immense tonnage of the port of Ha- 
vana, the firm realized that the value 
of the concession would be greatly 
strengthened by a large extension of 
its holdings contiguous to the original 
concession. With this idea in view 
they went quietly to work purchasing 
the swampy lands in the rear of the 
property until the original grant o£ 
some 12,000 meters was increased to 
135,000 meters, or about thirteen city 

To effectively handle and finance 
the new business of the firm another 
corporation was formed under the 
laws of Delaware, and known as 
"The Atares Wharf & Warehouse 
Company," with a capital of $2,000,000, 
and a bonded indebtedness of $500,- 

About six months ago' active opera- 
tions began in building the bulkheads 
and filling in the lands by means of 
a powerful dredge, through which op- 
eration two objects were accomplish- 
ed — the deepening of the channel in 
front of the property to a depth of 25 
feet and the disposal of the dredged 
material to fill in the marshy lands. 

The company will build warehouses 
and lease parcels of land so that it 
will be possible for the importer of 
bulky material to handle this busi- 
ness at a greatly decreased cost com- 
pared to what he has been accustomed 

to pay in the past. Owing to its fa- 
vorable location there is every reason 
to believe that the company will play 
a very important factor in the com- 
merce of Havana. 

One of the features of the business 
of the Harris Bros. Co. that has ap- 
pealed strongly to the tourist and vis- 
itor is their finishing department, 
which takes care of the developing 
and printing of the amateur's pictures. 
A large percentage of the many visi- 
tors to Cuba have cameras, and the 
picturesque country with its different 
life and customs, appeals strongly to 
the amateur photographer who wishes 
to see the results of his work as 
quickly as possible. A large and effi- 
cient organization makes it possible 
to deliver all work the day following 
its receipt, and when necessary the 
same day. Most important of all, the 
quality of the work is up to the high- 
est standard which obtains in the 
United States. 

To those who come unprovided with 
cameras they rent cameras at a very 
moderate rate, so that the picture- 
loving visitor is fully provided for in 
this regard. 

Postal cards in artistic coloring and 
a widely varied and interesting line 
of souvenirs completes the line ap- 
pealing to the tourist. 

One other department of a more 
utilitarian value that interests the 
newcomer who wears glasses is their 
optical department. This is in charge 
of an expert American optician, who 
with the help of a well equipped shop 
and competent workmen, can pre- 
scribe or replace any lense no matter 
how difficult or complicated it may 
be. This service, together with a 
complete line of sun glasses, goggles 
and other optical goods provides fully 
for the stranger in a strange land. 

The firm makes a specialty of of- 
fice supplies and furniture and can 
equip an office completely with the 
best grade of desks, filing devices and 
stationery at a moment's notice. One 
of the huildings is entirely devoted 
to the display of office furniture and 
a large warehouse holds a sufficient 
supply to rapidly fill the requirements 
of their customers. 

-f ■ 

Cuba's undelveloped resources are 


You will enjoy a visit to Cuba. 


Is Place From Which Evangellna 
Cisneros Escaped With Help of 
American Newspaper Man. 

On Compostela street, between Fun. 
dicion and O'Farrel streets, is the 
Casa de Rocogidas, the women's pris- 
on, which is associated with the 
Evangelina Cisneros incident of the 
Weyler regime. Her father had been 
in prison for many years. Learning 
that his health was breaking down, 
Miss Cisneros vainly besought the 
governor of the prison to secure his 
release. She was repulsed, and after- 
wards, on a charge of carrying letters 

to the rebels, was arrested and thrown 
into this prison. Miss Cisneros con- 
trived to communicate her case to 
Mrs. Pitzhugh Lee, wife of the Amer. 
ican Consul, who made known her 
story in the United States. Carl 
Decker, a reporter of the New 
York Journal, was commissioned by 
Mr. W. R. Hearst to undertake her 
rescue, and came to Havana for that 
purpose. Miss Cisneros drugged her 
keeper and companions with candy, 
and made her escape through an up- 
per window and over the roofs to the 
street, where she was received by Mr. 
Decker, who smuggled her aboard 
an American ship and took her to 
New York. 






Runs Along North Coast of Cuba and 
to Ports of Porto Rico and 
Santo Domingo. 

The Herrera Steamship Line is the 
most important line of the island of 
Cuba. It has a large fleet of steam- 
ers and does an immense freight and 
passenger business between the prin- 
cipal ports of Cuba and those of Porto 
Rico and Santo Domingo. 

A coastwise trip by one of these 
steamers is one of the most pleasani 
features of a visit to Cuba. There are 
regular weekly sailings from Havana 
along the north coast. Stops are made 
at the principal ports. Sufficient time 
is allowed tourists to disembark and 
make a short visit of from one to 
several hours in each town. 

The Cuban ports touched are N« e- 
vitas, Puerto Padre, Gibara, Banes, 
Mayari, Vita, Sama, Sagua de Tanamo, 
Baracoa, Guantanamo, Santiago de 
Cuba. The ports visited in the Re- 
public of Santo Domingo are: Santo 
Domingo and San Pedro de Macores. 
In Porto Rico these steamers touch 
San Juan, Mayaquez and Ponce. 

Until recent years, since the build- 
ing of a through railroad from San- 
tiago de Cuba to Havana, the only way 
Cubans from Eastern Cuba could reach 
Havana was by steamer and for this 
reason tho Herrera fJne p!ar.?d steam- 
ers with special accommodations for 
passengers, and crews especially train- 
ed for such service. The Line has 
continued this valuable service and 
the passenger is assured of the best at- 
tention and a menu that will make 
him regret when the voyage is over. 

The fleet is composed of the follow- 
ing steamers: "Julia," "Havana," "San- 
tiago de Cuba," "Gibara," "Nuevitas," 
"San Juan," "Cosme de Herrera" and 
"Aviles." * 


Espada cemetery, formerly located 
behind San Lazaro hospital, on the 
Vedado street car line, has ceased 
to exist. The dead have been re. 
moved to Colon, and not long ago its 
outer walls and dove-cotted tiers of 
tombs were demolished preparatory 
to using the ground for other pur. 



One American Who Cast His Lot With 
the Cuban Insurgents and Has 
IVlade Good. 

Among the successful Americans in 
Cuba there is no one whose career is 
more picturesque and intensely in- 
teresting than that of Captain Edward 
P. Mahony, one of the island's largest 

Mahony came to Cuba fifteen years 
ago. Filled with the combative spirit 
compatible with his six feet and some 
odd inches of vigorous young man- 
hood, he became deeply interested in 
the cause of Cuban liberty. He en- 
listed as a private with the Cuban 
insurgents. Mahony's kind are not 
kept down long and it was but a short 
time before he was climbing in the 
ranks of the Cubans fighting against 
Spain. He rose steadily through the 
.vyu-ccmruissioned ranks until he be- 
came a lieutenant and was assigned to 
the staff of the most reckless of all 
Cuban generals, Antonio Maceo. 

Mahony, as he is a man of action 
today in the business world, so was he 
a man of action in the insurgent army. 
He had many opportunities to display 
his prowess and his bravery with Ma- 
000. He was with the general in his 
famous break through what the Span- 
iards thought was their impassable 

rotcha. It was by the merest chance 
that he was not with Maceo when he 
and his staff were ambushed and slain 
on their return to the Trotcha after 
having spread terror throughout the 
western part of Havana province. 

For bravery in action Lieutenant 
Mahony was promoted to captain and 
assigned to the staff of the recently 
deceased General Rafael de Cardenas. 
This force of insurgents held forth in 
Havana province. The world was be- 
.ng informed by Spain that the prov- 
ince of Havana was pacified, that the 
spirit of the revolution was crushed 
CO rise no more. General Cardenas 
!ieard of the boast and just to show to 
the war correspondents in Havana that 
jven this city was in danger of attack, 
he massed his forces and one day 
made an attack on Guanabacoa, the 
little city of 10,000 inhabitants on the 
many Spanish officials and was there- 
other side of Havana bay. Guanaba- 
joa was at that time the residence of 
ore heavily guarded. General Carde- 
las had no intention of capturing the 
city, but simply to make a demonstra- 
tion that would convince the world t 
.arge that the spirit of insurrection 
was far from being dead in Havana 
province. He succeeded beyond his 
hopes, because he threw the Spanish 
army in a panic, shot up the town and 
got away again and the world knew 
the next day that the insurgents were 
knocking at the very door of Cuba's 

capital. Mahony's account of this en- 
gagement is worth a trip to Cuba to 

The Cuban insurrectionary govern- 
ment sent Mahony to the Western 
States to raise money for their cause. 
He was successful in his endeavor just 
as he was successful in the field. He 
raised large sums by lectures and sub- 
scriptions for the Cuban junta in New 
York and as a result of his efforts in 
this line many arms, much ammuni- 
tion and medicinal supplies were pur- 
chased for the insurgents struggling 
in the field against the dominion of 

When the war closed Mahony was 
made a street commissioner under the 
government of General Wood, and 
ater was in the customs service. 
With the instalation of the new Re- 
public of Cuba, and in recognition of 
his services to the Cuban cause, he 
was appointed inspector of immigra- 
tion, which place he resigned to ac- 
cept a position as port captain of the 
Southern Pacific. Afterwards Mahony 
became superintendent of construction 
for the Havana Central Railroad. 

As was to be expected of a man of 
the ability and energy of Mahony, he 
could not forever be content to be 
working for some one else. Sooner or 
later he must branch out for himselt. 
Mahony graduated from the Havana 
Central as a full fledged contractor. 
Instead of acting as superintendent for 

some one else who got the contracts he 
began getting contracts of his own and 
today his contracts amount to consid- 
erably more than a million dollars. 

Among the contracts obtained by 
Captain Mahony is the hauling of mil- 
lions of square meters of asphalt pav- 
ing blocks. He has also the sub-con- 
tract for curbing and paving the city 
of Havana. He has completed the 
contract of building 71 kilometers of 
macadam highway in the far weit of 
Pinar del Rio, and has recently been 
awarded the contract of building the 
road that will connect Guane with the 
coast. He built th Columbia-Gerona 
highway in the Isle of Pines, also the 
road from the town of Guane to its 
railroad station. In Camaguey he con- 
structed a road from the town of 
Florida (a station on the Cuba Rail- 
road) to San Geronimo, and has com- 
pleted the Bayamo-Manzanillo high- 
way in Santiago province. The latter 
road was part macadam and part 
gravel and was one of the most diffi- 
cult pieces of road building ever com- 
pleted in Cuba and is justly considered 
by Captain Mahony as one of the best 
of his triumphs during his six years' 
as a contractor. 

An idea of the magnitude of Captain 
Mahony's present work may be had 
when it is stated that he has now on 
his pay roll over 1,200 men whose pay 
range from one dollar to five dollars 
a day. 





A Combination of Business Enter- 
prises Greatly Influential in 
Building up Cuba. 

No combination of business enter- 
prises lias been so influential in the 
upbuilding of the island of Cuba as 
the Huston Companies. The parent 
company was The T. L. Huston Con- 
tracting Company, founded soon after 
the close of the first intervention. 

Among the laffiliated companies are: 
The Huston Concrete Company and 
the Huston-Trumbo Dredging Com- 
pany. All are Incorporated under tbe 
laws of Cuba. The contracts of these 
companies amount to many millions 
of dollars. 

This company has recently secured 
the large contract for dredging the 
ports of Cuba from the Compafiia de 
los Puertos de Cuba, who were re- 
cently granted the concession by the 
Cuban government. There are at 
present working in the harbor of Ha- 
vana four dredges of approved type 
which are removing mud, clay and 
rock at the rate of 400,000 cubic me- 
ters per month. They also have the 
contract for the removing of some 
260 abandoned wrecks which have 
accumulated during the past 400 
years They are about to start work 
on seven miles of concrete and pile 
bulkheads, which when completed will 
give Havana as good docking facilities 
as any city in the world. Large ships 
will be able to easily dock at any 
point in the harbor. 

Two dredges are at present work- 
ing in Santiago de Cuba, excavating 
mud and clay and in a short time 
work on bulkheads and dock frontage 
will be begun. Extensive studies are 
being made in all other ports of the 
island, and as soon as these have 
been completed and approved by the 
board of ports, work will likewise be 
started as in Havana and Santiago. 

Among the Huston Contracting 
Company's fixed plants, one of the 
most important is the Camoa quarry, 
on the Havana Central Railway at 
Jamaica, about eighteen miles from 
Havana. This quarry has an inex- 
haustible supply of the best stone on 
the island and is equipped with a 
crusher plant of the most modern 
machinery. This crusher plant is cap- 
able of turning out 1,100 cubic meters 
<of crushed stone daily and is not only 

by far the largest plant of its kind 
on the island but probably the largest 
south of the United States on the 
western continent. 

Building Department. 
Another important branch of the T. 
L. Huston Contracting Company's 
many industries, is its building de- 
partment. Among the monuments to 
its handiwork are to be numbered 
such buildings as the power house of 
the Havana Central railway near Lu- 

and A streets in the Vedado, which, 
with its graceful tower and classic 
portals, becomes easily one of the 
showhouses of the pretty suburb of 
the Cuban capital. 

The pretty residence of Pelayo Gar- 
cia at Fifteenth and J streets, is a 
model of neatness and presents a 
home-like effect obtainable in classic 
style of architecture. 

Engineering Department. 

The construction of the immense 

tain ledges. The company also con- 
structed a canal ten miles long near 
Guayama, P. R. 

All these are a part of an exten' 
sive system of irrigation which the 
government is installing in Porto 
Rico, and in the construction of 
which the Huston Contracting Com- 
pany is playing an important part. 
Huston Concrete Company. 

The latest plant installed by this 
company is the Concha pipe yard of 


yano and the shops and car barns of 
the Havana Electric Street railway, 
these being spacious, reinforced con- 
crete structures of the most modern 

Many handsome homes in the Ve- 
dado are the handiwork of this de- 
partment. Among these latter is the 
beautiful home of Dr. Damoso T. 
Laine at Twenty-first street, Vedado. 
Another instance is the residence ot 
Sr. Ruiz de Carvajal at Seventeenth 

dock for Harris Brothers, some 500 
meters across the lower end of the 
Havana bay, is among the latest big 
undertakings completed by this de- 

The general efficiency of the T. L. 
Huston Contracting Company has 
brought much foreign business. At 
the present time it is working on an 
immense contract in Porto Rico for 
the construction of two tunnels which 
are being bored through huge moun- 

the Huston Concrete Company located 
in Havana near the Concha station 
of the Concha-Marianao railway. 

The Huston Concrete Company has 
the contract to furnish the concrete 
pipe tor the sewers of Havana now 
under construction and their factory 
was built especially for the manufac- 
ture of this pipe. Altogether more 
than 66 miles of pipe ranging from 
eight inches to 84 inches will be 
turned out by this plant for the Ha- 

vana sewers. In this factory the best 
systems known to the art of pipe 
making are being employed. 
Huston-Trumbo Dredging Company. 

A difficult piece of construction ot 
magnitude which the govemmeui uds 
entrusted to the Huston-Trumbo 
Dredging Company is the dredging or 
the harbor at Isabella de Sagua, on 
the north coast in the province of 
Santa Clara. At present this port can 
accommodate only the smaller coast- 
ing vessels and the major portion of 
the vast amount of sugar which is 
raised in this section ot the island 
has to be shipped by rail to Havana 
or Cienfuegos and thence around the 
entire island. 

President Gomez, himself a native 
son and one-time governor of Santa 
Clara, has long since seen the ad- 
vantages which a good harbor at Isa- 
bella de Sagua would afford to the 
cane-growers, merchants and various 
industries of that province, and it is 
largely through his efforts that this 
wisely planned project will In another 
year become an actual fact and a 
source of prosperity for his people. 

This great undertaking represents 
the movement of more than three mil- 
lion cubic meters of hydraulic exca- 
vation, a large part of which is rock 
and will call into play some ingenious 
methods in submarine blasting. 
Dredges have been continually on this 
work since June 1, 1910. 

The new hydraulic dredge Norman 
H. Davis has recently joined the forces 
at Isabella de Sagua and at present is 
removing mud and clay from the 
channel at the rate of 20,000 cubic 
meters per day and depositing it back 
of bulkheads constructed for the rec- 
lamation of about 1,000,000 square 
meters of valuable land. 

The Huston Company's huge hy- 
draulic dredge, the Norman H. Davis, 
was especially designed and built for 
this contract, and is the latest in hy- 
draulic excavating machinery. It is 
the second largest dredge of this type 
in existence and its capacity is 25,000 
cubic meters of solid excavation 

The production of matches in Cuba 
amounts to 400,000 gross boxes per 

Original paintings by the old mas- 
ters are sometimes picked up in Ha- 
vana junk shops. 





By Benigno Diago. 

In order properly to understand the 
present status of th>; sugar ii;dustr.v 
in Cuba, it will be necessary not only 
to study the industry as it exists to- 
day but also the production of sugar 
in Cuba in relation to the world's 
production and consumption, and 
especially to the production and con- 
sumption of the United States, which 
is Cuba's chief and natural market. 

In studying the Cuban sugar in- 
dustry itself, it will be sufficient to 
detail only the period from the close 
of the Spanish-American War up to 
the present time. 

The periods preceding the Spanish- 
American War showed a gradual 
transformation from the existence oi 
many small plantations and mills with 
crude methods of manufacture, to 
fewer and larger mills with more mod- 
em methods. 

As early as 1850 Cuba produced 
223,143 tons of sugar and from then 
until 1893-4 there was a steady in- 
crease, when the production reached 
the figure of 1,054,214 tons. 

The revolution of 1895-8 resulted 
in tremendous destruction of prop- 
erty and the consequent curtailment 
of sugar productions, from which the 
island has but lately recovered. In 
1894-5, the year previous to the revo- 
lution, Cuba produced 1,040,000 tons 
of sugar; in 1S96-7, 219,500 tons; 
1897-8, 314,000 tons; and in 1898-9, 
345,261 tons, which year marked the 
close of the Spanish rule and the be- 
ginning of a new era. 

At the close of the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War all the sugar estates in the 
island had suffered great damage and 
loss du* to the destruction of proper- 
ty (in many cases complete), and to 
their inability to operate during the 
revolution of the three preceding 
years. The owners had all suffered 
heavy financial loss and were con- 
fronted by conditions which made it 
difficult for them to obtain money to 
rebuild their plants, and even where 
money could be obtained it was at 
usurious rates. 

During the eleven years elapsed 
since the Spanish-American War, the 

production of the island has grown 
from 345,261 tons in 1898-9 to 1,513,- 
582 tons in 1908-9 the largest crop of 
sugar Cuba had ever produced to that 
date. In 1909-10 the production was 
1,804,349 tons. 

While several new mills have been 
built with new capital, the main in- 
crease has come, however, from the 

Crop Year. 

rebuilding of the old mills which in 
most cases has been gradual and as 
the profits derived from the crops 
themselves allowed. 

Following is a table showing the 
production of sugar in Cuba from 
1898 to date, with high, low and aver- 
age prices cost and freight for each 

ns Produced. 

High Price. 

Low Price. 



































2.03 . 










Note— The average price for the ten years 1899-1908 is 2.4838 cents. 

From the foregoing table it will be ] of 1906 and the hurricane in the fall 
seen that since the close of the Span- | of the same year), and that the price 

ish-American War there has been a 
rapid and steady increase in the pro- 
duction of sugar in Cuba, with the 
exception of the year 1907-1908, when 
a large decrease over the previous 
year was shown (due to severe drought 
and conditions arising from the re- 
sult of the revolution in the summer 

of the sugar has shown little tend- 
ency to decline with the increase in 

In connection with Cuba's produc- 
tion, the following table show- 
ing the world's production of sugar 
for the last ten years (from both 
beet and cane) will be of value: 

Cane Sugar Crop. 

Cane Sugar Crop. 
































Haiti and Santo Domingo . . 






Lesser Antillas (not named) 








■1 {\f\ AAA 




Central America 





















nan 1 0A 


TO"! ftOO 







Australia and Polinesia . . . . 
















Total cane sugar crops . . . . 






European beet sugar crop . . 






tr. S. beet sugar crop 






Total cane and beet sugar. 


9,906,352 11,038,393 



1904-5 is due to the including of the total production of British India and 
Formosa- Japan. In previous years the amount exported only was calculat- 
ed. The total production of these countries is now consumed at homft 
and no exports are made. 

















British West Indies 






French West Indies 






Danish West Indies 






Haiti and San Domingo . . 






Lesser Antillas (not named) 





















British India 




















Australia and Polinesia. . . 
















Total cane sugar crops... 






European beet sugar crop. . 






U. S. bset sugar crop 






Total cane and beet sugar. 






The study of the foregoing table 
will show that during the last ten 
years the world's production of sugar 
has increased about 3,600,000 tons or, 
from approximately 10,650,000 tons 
(making due allowance for the total 
production of British India, Formosa 
and Japan as per above table) to 14,- 
235,500 tons, the crop estimated for 
the year 1908-9, or about 30 per cent; 
an average of over 3 per cent in- 
crease a year for the last ten years. 
Of this increase, 2,300,000 tons has 
been in cane sugar and 1,300,000 tons 
in beet sugar. Thus it can be seen 
that the increase in cane sugar has 
nearly doubled that in beet sugar. It 
is also noticeable that Cuba has af- 
forded nearly one-half of the world's 
increase in cane sugar during the 
period above referred to. 

A further study of the table will 
show that during the last ten years, 
aside from Cuba's increase of about 
1,000,000 tons, the principal increase 
in cane sugar production has been 
solely in the following countries: i 

United States about 600,000 tons 

Java about 470,000 tons. 

Philippine Islands about. .100,000 tons 

The other cane producing countries, 
while some show gains and others, 
losses, afford no instance of any 
steady and continued increase worth, 


On many street corners of Havana 
are to be seen men with boxes of 
cigars or done up in neat rolls made 
from yagua, a portion of the royal 
palm tree. They offer pure Havana 
cigars at attractive prices. 

Many of these vendors make their 
cigars at night, or have their wives 
and children do it, while they sell 
them on the streets during the day. 

These cigars are often very good 
but as a rule they can not be recom- 
mended to the visitor because they are 
often made in close rooms far from 



The Maine as She Appears Just Before Cutting Away of the Wreckage 

Coprrlghtod by TUo Amcrlcftn Pholo Co.. Hnrann. Cub 



Sliowiiig tilt Wreck Inside oi the Cofferdam. Water Pumped Out to the 18-Foot Level 



Inside of Cofferdam Showing First Unwatering of Battleship Maine 


CopirtgbteJ by Tbo AmBrican Photo Co., Hurana. Cutn. 


The Last Decoration of Maine by Spanish War Veterans and Daughters of the American Revolution, February 15, 1911 


The Largest Cement Pipe Works in the World 

Slioivinc Pipe Made Especially for Hnvana's SeweraRe Systfiiii. 


Actual I'lodiictioii Last Ciiiiipaiyn, 8li,000 Tons of Sugar, Which Aro Equivalent to 531,000 Bajts of 320 Pounds liliidi. 






Capital More Than $6,000,000 


^ <$> <8> i 

The most liberal Cbmpany 
with its clients. 

P. O. Box 509. Telephone A. 2820. 
Dr. Juan de DIos Garcia Kohly, 
Consulting Lawyer. 



Miguel F. Villar, Proprietor. 

— + 

San Pedro Street, Corner Sol, 

Havana. i 
Telephone 564 and A. 3306,1 

Spanish, French, American Cooking. 
Specially in All Kinds of Fresh Fish. 
Up-to-Date Service in Every Respect. 
Beautiful Roof Garden, with Splendid 
View of the Bay, Charming Dining 
Rooms. Open from 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



p. O. Box 631. Telephone A. 1760. 
Importers and Exporters of 
All Kinds of Crate Materials 

<$> ^ <?> 

The Well Known Fertilizer Brands 

"A GRI C U L T 0 R" 





The only daily newspaper published in English on the Island of Cuba. 

Devoted to the welfare of Ouba and her people without reference to ' ' class or creed. ' ' 

Constructively critical in momentous questions, but indisposed to meddle with the 
trivial political affairs and personalities which arise from day to day. 

Finding a ^reat part of its mission in desseminating the news of the world, and par- 
ticularly the news of the United States, to its readers. 

Chronicilin^ the news of Cuba fairly and impartially for the benefit of its readers, 
both here and in the United States. 

Doini? its best to offset misleading impressions of Cuba gathered from reports pub- 
lished in some foreign newspapers. 

Impressing upon the pleasure"seeker the unparalleled advantages that Cuba offers as 
the "playground of America." 

Bringing the investor in touch with the most favorable opportunities for placing 
his capital. 

Finally, serving all the legitimate purposes which an absolutely independent, care- 
ful, conservative journal can have for its ideals. 

Also Special Fertilizers for Cane. 

Spraying Fluids for Trees. 
"Wrapping Paper, Feed, Nails. 


Cable: "Ensconce." 
Codes: Lieber's and Western Union. 
Telephone A. 1894. 

^ <?> «> 






i Zulueta 20, Havana, Cuba. 

P. O. Box 1103. Cable: "Fruitex." ' 
Exporters and Importers of 


Produce Commission, Forwarding 
Agents, Custom House Brokers, 
Purchasing Agents for All Classes ot 



P. S. Earle, President. 

C. F. Austin, Vice Pres. and Gen. Man. 

L. M. Patterson, Secretary and Treas. 

Board of Directors: 
H. C. Henricksen. Havana; T. J. Pier- 
son, Omaja; H. A. Van Herman, San- 
tiago de las Vegas; Jno. H. Kydd, Ce- 
ballos; E. W. Halstead, Los Palacios; 
J. E. Roberts, Bartle. 










These for trimmings of gowns 
and daintiest lingerie, the 
beautiful work of the women 
field hands of Spain, who busy 
themselves, each with her fa- 
vorite pattern in lace making, 
as they gossip and sing around 
the open fires through the long 
winter nights. 


Prices will be found the lowest for 
qualities of equal merit. 

<J> <$> ^ 









160 Industria Street, corner Barcelona. 
Between Colon and Central Park. 
One Block from Prado. 
Telephone A. 2998. Cable: Granhotel. 


100 rooms with private bath connect- 
ed to each. Electric elevator. All 
improvements of any first class hotel 
in the United States. First class res- 
taurant. American and French cuis- 
ine. European and American plan. 
Moderate prices. 

BIANUEL DURAN. Proprietor 




Monte 71-73, Fronting Amistad. 






We Make a Specialty of Suits 





San Rafael Street, No. 2. 


ROOMS 212, 213, 214. 


Orders to buy and sell stocks and 
bonds for investment or on margin 
promptly executed by cable on New 
York, London, Paris and Montreal 
Stock E.xchanges. New York stock 
quotations sent by Messrs. Miller & 
Co., 29 Broadway, New York. Mem- 
bers New York Stjok Excliange. 






Ricla 8. P. 0. Box 711. 

R. Peale, President. 

M. DIrube, Superintendent. 
W. R. Teller Treasurer. 

R. Pelleya, Secretary. 



— + — 

Telephone No. 600. 

Depositary: O'Donnei! No. 4, Regla. No. 8042. 
Cable: "Targum." Apartado 393. 



Repositeria Parisian 

■ — ■♦■ — • 


Obispo No. 51 (antiguo), 




General Agent for Cuba 
Consul ado 128 
Havana, : : : : : Cuba 



Audits — Special 
Examinations — Systems 

General Offices: 
F. F. JUDD, C. P. A., General Manager. 
E. V. BRAGDON, C. E., Asst. Man. 

New York Life Building, 30 South 
La Salle Street. 
H. S. JXJDD, Manager. 
Edificio La IVIutua. 
J. B. PHELAN, Manager. 

.Cable Address, all offices, "Audit." 

Cable: Labrador. Lieber's Code Used. 



Neptuno 166, between Escobar and 
Gervaslo. Telephone A. 4238. 

«> ❖ 

This house makes a specialty 
of artistic furniture, antiques 
of merit and novelties. All 
articles made to order compare 
favorably with foreign work- 
manship. All work is guran- 


Agencies and Commissions 

Representatives in Island of Cuba of 

A. & W. SMITH & CO., Ltd., 

of Glasgow. 


of Berlin. 


of Paris. 

Manufacturers of Machinery for Sugar 
Mills and Other Industries. 




United Steamship Co. 

New Orleans-Galveston-Cuban Ports.. 

Norway-Mexico Gulf Line, 

Scandanavian- United States-Ciiban-- 
Mexican Ports. 

Inter-American Steamship Co., 

<s> <s> ^ 

p. O. BOX 788. 
405-407 Lonja Building, Havana, Cuhs- 


3 and 6 San Rafael Street, 





American Styles 



<s> ^ <s> 

Telephone A. 2232 


This well known Restaurant of 
world-wide renown is the favorite 
resort of all persons appreciating a 
first class table and the only one 
which supplies the vsry b^pt French 
cooking at reasonable prices. 



The Only American 








Operates the Express Service on the System of The United 
Railways of Havana, having agents at all stations, messen- 
gers on all trains; also 

from points in Cuba to all parts of the United States 

is a ^eat convenience to the traveling public. A uniformed 
Baff^af!;e Ap:ent meets all trains before arrival at Havana, 
with whom passengers may arrange for deliverv of baggage 
to hotels and residences; also to Machina wharf for outgoing 
steamers. Pursers on Ward, Munson, and Southern Pacific 
New Orleans Line act as the Agents of this Company and 
will arrange to check baggage from wharf to hotels, resi- 
dences, and railway stations. Passengers undecided as to 
stopping place in Havana may leave their baggage at Ex- 
press Company's office, 150 Havana Street, for two weeks 
free of charge. 



52 BROADWAY (Telephone No. 727) 



whose uniformed agents board all trains before their arrival in Havana 
for the purpose of assuming charge of baggage for delivery to hotels and 
residences, and to the Machina Wharf for outgoing steamers, at the fol- 
lowing fixed rates: 

To residences and hotels in Havana betwi.' n the Bay and Belascoain street: 

Each trunk $0.50 U. S. Cy. ; each additional trunk $0.40 U. S. Cy. 

Each valise .. .25 U. S. Cy. ; each additional valise 25 U. S. Cy. 

To Machina Wharf; 

Each trunk $0.75 U. S. Cy. Each valise 25 U. S. Cy. 

Passengers are hereby warned not to be imposed upon by agents of 

Irresponsible carriers and so-called "Expresses," whether on the trains or 

at. the stations. 

Tickets to any point on or reached via the United Railways of 
Havana are on sale at the Cuban and Pan-American Express Co.'s Central 
Office, 150 Havana Street, Havana, from 8:00 a. m. to 6:00 p. m., without 
extra charge, thus enabling passengers to buy their tickets for any train 
at any hour, and at the same time effect the checking of their baggage 
to destination. A duly authorized messenger of the Express Company will 
respond promptly to any orders for tickets and baggage checking received 
by telephone. 



Engineers and Fabricators 
of Structural Steel 

FOR — 








143 Liberty Street, New York 
Zulueta 360, Havana 


150 Havana Street. 


Telephone 727 


representatives for CUBA 

"The Leading Office Supply 
House on the Island." 








Mr. G. Brosseau, Secretary General of the Foreign Sec- 
tion, presented and read the report and analytical examina- 
tion No. 352, as well as the result of the test of the products, 
and in consequence thereof it was agreed to award a Diplo- 
ma of GRAND PRIX to Mr. E. Aldabo for the superiority 
of his liquors. 

The President stated that amongst the samples of food 
products and particularly those of liquors which were ex- 
hibited in the pure food exposition, Mr. E. Aldabo 's liquors 
deserved special mention. 

Mr. Aldabo had sent a sample of rum to the Testing 
Commission and it was acknowledged to be a superior pro- 
duct in every respect. 

The certificate of analysis declares that Mr. E. Alda- 
bo 's product is absolutely pure. 

Likewise his other cordials such as "Triple Sec" and 
"Bombon-Crema" cocoa basis as well as the anisette and 
pineapple wine. 

The "Triple Sec" is of an exceerHngly fine mnnnfact- 
ure, and as with all of Mr. Aldabo 's liquors, the raw mate- 
rial is of extra quality. It is a liquor of exquisite taste as 
well as an excellent tonic. We take great pleasure in con- 
gratulating Mr. E. Aldabo for tlie superior quality of his 
products, which have deserved the highest award of the In- 
ternational Institute of Food. 

Beside the GRAND PRIX, the International Institute of 
Food, has awarded to Mr. E. Aldabo, The PaiiT-G (insignia) 
of the Institute by the unanimous votes and personal con- 
gratulation of the Jury. 

Paris, October 5tb, 1910. 
(Translated from the "Journal Officiel de L'Alimentation Francaise," Vol- 
ume 23rd of the 12th year, page 3.) 


Is Only 54 Miles From Havana— Way 
From Havana Leads Through 
Many Sugar Plantations. 


Matanzas is on the north coast 54 
miles from Havana. The route is by 
the United Railways. A convenient 
way to visit the place, if only one day 
may be allowed, is afforded- 
by personally conducted ex- 
cursions provided by the 
railroad. On the way to . 
Matanzas several large su- 
gar plantations on the isl- 
and are passed, thus afford- 
ing during the zafra, or har- 
vest, which extends trom 
December to May, the inter- 
esting sight of cane being 
cut and carted to the Inge- 
nios or mills. In some re- 
gions the whole country ap- 
pears to be one immense 
canefield stretching away 
beyond the sight, looking 
not unlike the cornfields of 
the Western States. The 
cut cane is conveyed in 
carts drawn by bull teams, 
or on freight trains which 
are seen on the narrow- 
gauge plantation railroads. 
There are nearly 900 miles 
of these private sugar plan- 
tation railroads on the isl- 
and. In the long trains car- 
rying cane, the extensive 
range of the mill buildings, 
with their smoking chim- 
neys, the sugar-laden at- 
mosphere, and the general 
air of activity, some hint is 
given of the magnitude of 
the sugar industry. 

The short rail journey is 
replete with scenery that is 
novel and fascinating to the 
tourists from the North. 
The peculiar richness of 
the native red soil 

ing existing or ancient boundaries or 
entrances to the country homes of 
rich planters and others; again, scat- 
tered about promiscuously on hill-top 
and in hollow. It is everywhere a 
conspicuous and characteristic ob- 
ject of the landscape, presenting itself 
in new groupings and settings in an 
ever.changing picture of which it is 
the central feature. It is seen in all 

bor are the Maya Point light on the 
east (a fixed white light visible thir- 
teen miles), and Sabanillo Point on 
the west; further in on the same side 
is Gordo Point, and beyond that is the 
pilot station; opposite is the mouth 
of the Canimar River, with Morillo 
Castle; then on the eastern shore is 
seen San Severino Castle, and com- 
plementing this across the bay is 

water's edge to a height of 100 feet 
Still higher beyond the town rises 
the verdant hill called the Cumbre, 
with the Church of Montserrate near 
the summit. The city comprises three 
parts, the old town in the center lying 
between the Yumurl and San Juan 
rivers; Versalles on the north across 
the Yumurl; and Pueblo Nuevo beyond 
the San Juan river on the north. 


which is the most productive in the 
world — may be appreciated from the 
car window, and one ceases to doubt 
how it is possible to gather two and 
three crops of corn a year and a prac- 
tically perpetual crop of cane without 
replanting, and without the use of an 
ounce of fertilizer. Countless thous- 
ands of royal palms are seen on eithe\ 
side — now in stately avenues, indicat 

its beauty in the Valley of the Yu- 

On the approach to Matanzas by 
sea, the first land discerned is the cel. 
ebrated Pan of Matanzas, a peak 
southwest of the harbor, rising 1,277 
feet high in the shape of a truncated 
cone or loaf of bread (the Spanish 
word pan, meaning bread). The nearer 
marks at the mouth of the har- 

Penas Altas Fort. The usual anchor- 
age is off the section of the city called 
Versalles. The harbor is a bay five 
miles in length and one and one-half 
miles wide at the anchorage; while 
not landlocked, it is protected by a 
coral reef which lies in front of the 

Matanzas is built on a slope which 
rises with gradual ascent from the 

The Plaza de la Libertad — called 
alsb the Central Park — is very pretty 
with its flowers, palms and a foun. 
tain. Pacing the park on the south 
is the State House, formerly the Gov- 
ernor's Palace; and on other sides are 
the Casino Espanol (Spanish Club), 
with highly ornate facade, the Cuban 
Club and the Grand Hotel Louvre. 
Evening concerts ar« given twice a 

week by the Firemen's Band. The 
Plaza was the scene of public execu- 
tions, and it was here that the Cuban 
poet, Gabriel de la Concepcion Valdes 
("Placido") met his death. Just oft 
the Plaza on the Calle de la Constitu- 
cion is the Parochial Church of San 

The summit of the Cumbre (Hill) is 
reached by a carriage road, which 

leads to the hermitage of 

Monserrate and to the bluff 
overlooking the Yumuri 
iTalley. The prospect over 
this immense basin, with 
I the river winding through 

I the parti-colored fields of 

cane and other vegetation 
and royal palms, singly and 
in clumps and clusters, dot- 
ting the whole expanse of 
the Itvels and slopes and 
summits of the encircling 
hills, is the most beautiful 
in Cuba, and one of the 
most famous in the world. 
The Yumurl has times and 
moods; one should see it in 
the oarly morning or at sun- 
set, when the blending tints 
rre soft and delicate. The 
Cumbre view to the east 
overlooks the town with its 
bright colored houses, the 
harbor and the broad ex- 
panse of the sea, with the 
ihore-line seen stretching 
away in a series of cres- 
cents marked by the white 
suri breaking on the sand. 

The hermitage of Mon- 
serrate was built in 1870 by 
Cuban residents who were 
natives of Catalonia ajid the 
Balearic Islands and their 
descendants. It contains a 
,| shrine fashioned from cork 

Ibrou^feht from Spain, repl-e- 
senting the shrine in the 
ivlonastry of Monserrate, the 
sacred mountain of the Cat- 

alans, which rises froln the 

plateau of Cataluha. The Spanish 
monastery was built in 880 to enshrihe 
La Santa Imagen, a small Wooden 
figure of the Virgin, which the legend 
says was made by St. Luke and was 
taken to Spain by St. Peter; and be- 
fore which Ignatius Loyola, foulider of 
the Jesuit order, hung up his weapons, 
renounced the World, devoting himsf'" 
to services of Christ and the Virg 




0EC26 1911